Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Read pages 106-113 of your text.? There are eight theories discussed.? Find a news story in the past two weeks and relate it to one of these theories.? Submit a one-page - Writeedu

Read pages 106-113 of your text.? There are eight theories discussed.? Find a news story in the past two weeks and relate it to one of these theories.? Submit a one-page

 Read pages 106-113 of your text.  There are eight theories discussed.  Find a news story in the past two weeks and relate it to one of these theories.  Submit a one-page summary relating the theory to the news story, including references.  Submit a copy of the news story in PDF format.  Be sure and review the provided Rubric, you will find it in the Course Documents. 

Chapter 6: Psychology II: Communication and Motivation

Practicing Leadership: Principles and Applications

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Chapter 6: Communication and Motivation

ERG Theory

Chapter 6: Communication and Motivation

Reinforcement Theory

Reinforcement theory: A motivation model that argues that behavior can be shaped by controlling the consequences of that behavior.

Three Types:

Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning

Social Learning Theory

Classical Conditioning

Chapter 6: Communication and Motivation

Herzberg’s Dual Factor Theory

Hygiene Factors Motivational Factors
Absence of job security, quality of supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, or adequacy of pay and fringe benefits. Opportunity for achievement and advancement, responsibility, job challenge, and recognition,

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

Theory X Leaders and Managers believe: Theory Y Leaders and Managers believe:
People inherently dislike work and will try to avoid it. People can view work as an activity as natural as rest or play.
People must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives of the task.
People will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. The average person can learn to accept and even seek responsibility.
Most people place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition. The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the general population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions.

McClellan’s Trichotomy of Needs

Power Motivation

Drive and Achievement Motivation

Need for Affiliation

Every leader is on a continuum for each need

Low High

Equity Theory

Chapter 6: Communication and Motivation

Expectancy Theory

Chapter 6: Communication and Motivation


Transactional Communication: the idea that all communication involves a sender and a receiver. Both the sender and the receiver determine the meaning of the communication that has taken place.


Encoding and Decoding




Types of Communications

Verbal versus nonverbal communication

Intentional versus unintentional communication

Formal versus informal communication

Upward versus downward versus lateral communication

Chapter 6: Communication and Motivation

Interpersonal Communication Process

Chapter 6: Communication and Motivation

Directions of Communications

Chapter 6: Communication and Motivation

Factors Leading to Breakdowns in Communication

Differing frames of reference

Selective perception

Semantic problems


Constraints on time

Communication overload

Chapter 6: Communication and Motivation

Improving Communication

Using descriptive, as opposed to evaluative, speech

Taking a collaborative approach to problem-solving

Communicating with spontaneity, rather than from hidden strategies or agenda

Demonstrating empathy

Promoting equality across and within levels of an organization

Trying to hear all sides of a debate rather than simply sticking to one’s own agenda

Questions for Discussion and Review

What distinguishes Alderfer’s ERG theory from Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?

What does Alderfer consider to be the primary human needs?

What are some of the distinctions between Theory X and Theory Y leaders? Do you know anyone who meets the criteria for either of these styles?

What is the primary difference between personalized and socialized power drives?

Is equity theory based on objective data or perceptions?

According to Vroom’s expectancy theory, what three components influence motivation?

Compare and contrast Bandura’s social learning theory with Skinner’s operant conditioning theory and Pavlov’s classical conditioning theory.

Questions for Discussion and Review

Describe how communication is a transactional process. What are the steps within this process?

What are some examples of communication sets?

Describe three situations where interference has impeded communication.

Describe three situations where nonverbal signals can alter the meaning of a verbal communication.

What is the primary distinction between upward, downward, and lateral communication?

How is active listening different from hearing?

What are some of the main factors which can lead to a breakdown in communication?

What are some of the characteristics of a supportive communicative climate?








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