30 Apr Students are to write the introduction and the literature review of their paper. Learning Objectives: After reading these chapters students should be able to: Refi
Students are to write the introduction and the literature review of their paper.
Learning Objectives: After reading these chapters students should be able to:
Refine their theses statement.
Write their paper in the third person.
Write in the proper tense.
Avoid sexist and biased language
Compare and contrast issues and critical views relevant to his/her topic.
Organize by chronology relevant to his/her topic.
Review the history and background of the topic.
Write the body of the research paper.
Cite evidence from scholarly sources.
Write the reference page.
Discrimination in the Law Enforcement Negotiation Process: What works and What Doesn't When Handling Suspects
Department of Criminal Justice, Grambling State University
CJ 502: Writing Seminar for Criminal Justice
Dr. Tazinski P. Lee
April 17, 2023
Discrimination in the law enforcement bargaining process is a weighty issue that has
been considered in current years(Lester,2018). As law enforcement officers work to guarantee
public security and the rule of society, the situation of suspects throughout the trial process is a
main determinant that must be cautiously deliberate. In this study project, we will delve into the
shadings concerning this affair and test everything and what does not when handling guesses
during the law enforcement bargaining process.
This research project aims to review the existent information on bias in the policing
negotiation process and specify an understanding of the aspects that influence prejudicial
practices. We will precariously resolve the issues and critical views regarding this topic,
correlating and divergent various views to gain an inclusive understanding (Eberhardt,2019).
Additionally, we will review the experiences and history concerning this issue to support context
and recognize some patterns or styles that may have developed over time.
To summarize, prejudice in the law enforcement negotiating process is a complicated and
diverse subject that requires careful examination (Worden,2020). This study proposal intends to
contribute to the existing literature on this topic by offering a comprehensive analysis of the past,
settling disagreements, and organizing the research in an acceptable and intelligible form. The
expectation is that by doing this research, it will be possible to make judgments about what
matters and what does not when authorities have suspects in the law enforcement negotiating
process, resulting in the emergence of fair and just procedures in law enforcement (Goff &
Statement of the problem
The issue at stake is the presence of prejudice in the policing negotiating process, which
has been established in several cases and has affected poor outcomes such as unlawful arrests,
false confessions, and breaches of justice (Lum et al.,2019). Despite efforts to protect suspects'
rights and ensure fairness throughout the negotiation process, discriminatory practices persist,
posing a substantial threat to the criminal justice system's uprightness and justice.
Discrimination in the law enforcement negotiation process can take many forms,
including but not limited to racial, cultural, neuter, religious, and socioeconomic bias. Suspects
from marginalized or young groups acknowledge the likelihood of being susceptible to typical
situations created by implicit or particular biases possessed by police officers and bureaucrats
(Lum et al.,2019). Long-term consequences include strained community relations, diminished
cooperation with law enforcement, and lower public trust in the criminal justice system.
As a result, the issue of prejudice in the law enforcement negotiation process needs a
comprehensive investigation and understanding to identify the elements that promote similar
discriminatory behaviors and establish effective measures to confront and avoid them (Goff &
Kahn,2017). By talking about it, we may work toward a more equitable and unbiased criminal
justice system that protects the rights of all suspects, regardless of their past, and fosters
confidence and clarity among law enforcement agencies and their communities.
The purpose of the study
This study aims to look at the issue of prejudice in the law enforcement negotiation
process and see what works and what does not when dealing with suspects. The study's goal is to
comprehensively analyze the available literature on this topic, analyze critical perspectives and
possibilities, and identify the underlying factors that promote discriminatory behaviors
throughout the diplomatic process.
The study seeks to improve knowledge of the dynamics of prejudice in the policing
negotiation process and highlight the need for fair and just treatment of suspects. By
investigating the issue of prejudice in this context, the research hopes to increase awareness of
the problem and create an evidence-based policy to avoid and correct discriminatory behaviors in
law enforcement negotiating (Harris,2016).
Furthermore, the study describes practical understandings and recommendations for law
enforcement and legislators to build effective plans to reduce prejudice in the negotiation process
(Lum et al.,2019). This grant authorization includes recognizing best practices, training
programs, legislative reforms, and procedural modifications that can foster fairness, justice, and
equal treatment of suspects during negotiations.
The study's findings are predicted to impact the development of evidence-based methods
and policies that support a fair and just scenario for suspects during the law enforcement
negotiating process(Tyler,2017). Finally, the goal is to strengthen the criminal integrity plan's
integrity and justice, establish confidence and legitimacy between law enforcement agencies and
the societies they serve, and ensure that suspects are handled with decency, respect, and
compliance with the law.
The article on discrimination in the law enforcement negotiating process offers opinions
on the numerous reasons that lead to discriminatory tactics and their consequences for suspects
and the criminal justice system. Several major concepts and critical perspectives have emerged
from the current literature, shedding insight into the complexities and problems associated with
this subject (Lester,2018).
Implicit Bias and Stereotyping:
Studies have demonstrated that, like all things, police officers and officials are prone to
unconscious biases and preconceptions that might impact their thoughts, judgments, and actions
throughout the negotiating process. According to research, unconscious prejudice based on color,
ethnicity, gender, church, or other characteristics can lead to biased situations for suspects,
resulting in unjust consequences (Eberhardt,2019). For example, suspects from minority groups
are more likely to be viewed as dangerous or guilty, resulting in more harsh treatment or less
favorable negotiating results when compared to suspects from adulthood groups. Implicit
prejudice can operate subconsciously, making it difficult to detect and resolve, yet it can have
major consequences for suspect rights and the fairness of the negotiating process.
Structural and Systemic Factors:
The involvement of structural and intrinsic elements in providing discrimination in the
law enforcement negotiating process has also been highlighted in the literature. This includes
racial profiling, law enforcement's disproportionate targeting of specific populations, and
inherent biases in rules, processes, and practices (Alpert & Dunham,2016). For example,
research has indicated that some populations, particularly those from marginalized or young
groups, are more likely to be stopped, searched, or arrested by law enforcement personnel,
leading to discrepancies in negotiation outcomes. Structural and systemic variables can
contribute to a biased environment, perpetuating prejudice and compromising the negotiating
process's fairness and thoroughness.
Based on the evaluation of the essays, the following research questions and theories were
suggested for future investigation:
1. What factors influence prejudice in the law enforcement negotiating process when
dealing with suspects?
2. How can implicit biases and standardization affect law enforcement agents' perceptions,
judgments, and actions during a negotiation?( Skolnick & Fyfe,2020)
3. What are the underlying and systemic factors that facilitate discriminatory practices in the
negotiating process, and how do they influence questionable reactions?
4. How does the power disparity between law enforcement officials and suspects affect the
bargaining process, and what risks do suspects face?( Nelson & Kubrin,2019)
5. What are the consequences of policing negotiation prejudice for suspects, societies, and
the criminal justice system?
1. Law enforcement officers with more inherent prejudice are likelier to engage in
discriminatory behavior throughout the negotiation process.
2. Structural and systemic factors like ethnic profiling and prejudiced techniques cause
differences in negotiation results for suspects from marginalized groups.
3. Power disparities between law enforcement officials and suspects and biased views or
attitudes create an unfair scenario and repercussions for suspects.
4. Discrimination in the policing negotiating process leads to bad outcomes such as
unlawful arrests, forged confessions, and coerced social relationships.
Lester, J.D. (2018). Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide (16th Edition). Pearson.
Eberhardt, J.L. (2019). Biased: Uncovering the Hidden Prejudice That Shapes What We See,
Think, and Do. Viking.
Alpert, G.P., & Dunham, R.G. (2016). Understanding Police Use of Force: Officers, Suspects,
and Reciprocity. Cambridge University Press.
Worden, R.E. (2020). Arrest Decisions: What Works and What Does Not. Routledge.
Goff, P.A., & Kahn, K.B. (2017). Implicit Bias in Law Enforcement. Social Issues and Policy
Review, 11(1), 195–222.
Tyler, T.R. (2017). Procedural Justice and Lawful Policing: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological
Bulletin, 143(5), 521–554.
Lum, C., Koper, C.S., & Telep, C.W. (2019). Receptivity to Procedural Justice and Legitimacy:
The Role of Race, Trust, and Legitimacy in the Chicago Police Department. Justice
Quarterly, 36(1), 55-81.
Harris, D.A. (2016). Profiles in Injustice: Why Racial Profiling Cannot Work. New York
Nelson, R.K., & Kubrin, C.E. (2019). The Social Dynamics of Bias-Based Policing: Group
Threat, Contact, and Police Legitimacy. Criminology, 57(1), 141-168.
Skolnick, J.H., & Fyfe, J.J. (2020). Above the Law: Police and the Excessive Use of Force. Free
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