05 May Hello, please add an abstract and please make sure there is no plagiarism – report as well as grammatical errors. and make sure paper structure is ok and fix. APA formatFINAL
Hello, please add an abstract and please make sure there is no plagiarism – report as well as grammatical errors. and make sure paper structure is ok and fix.
The Impact of Immigrant Workforce in the Senior Care Economy
The Impact of Immigrant Workforce in the Senior Care Economy
Oonah JaJa Wachuku
Table of Contents The Impact of Immigrant Workforce in the Senior Care Economy 1 Chapter 1: Introduction 4 Overview 4 Background of Study 4 Problem Statement 7 Statement of Purpose 7 Research Question(s) 8 Significance 9 Assumptions 11 Limitations 12 Definition of Terms 13 Chapter 2 Literature Review 15 Introduction 15 Literature Search Strategy 16 Conceptual Framework 16 Review of the Literature 19 Synthesis of Literature Findings 29 Summary 30 Chapter 3: Research Method 31 Introduction 31 The rationale for the Research Approach 32 Methodology 34 Population or Data 34 Sampling and Sampling Procedures 35 Data Analysis Plan 35 Trustworthiness 39 External Validity 39 Internal Validity 41 Construct Validity 42 Ethical Considerations 42 Summary 44 Chapter 4: Results 45 Introduction 45 Data Results 46 Demographic information 46 Immigrants in California 46 Immigrants in Florida 48 Immigrants in Texas 49 Data Analysis 52 First Hypothesis testing 52 Multiple Linear Regression 52 Correlation matrix 52 Second Hypothesis Testing 53 Correlation analysis 54 Interpretation 54 Summary 55 Chapter 5: Summary and Conclusion 55 Introduction 55 Summary of the Results 56 Interpretation of Findings 57 Limitations of the Study 64 Recommendations 65 Conclusion 68 References 69
Chapter 1: Introduction
This paper presents the challenges and opportunities of the senior care economy. The last two decades have seen the United States grow continuously older, resulting in a growing elderly care economy which translates into the creation of a significant number of jobs, now and in the future, for senior housing and care options. The demographic trends in the United States show an aging nation, where home healthcare workers are estimated to be the third fastest-growing occupation. At the same time, a shortage of paid caregivers has led immigrants to play an essential role in filling the gap in nursing homes and in-home care. This paper focuses on three states where one-fourth of these older Americans live: California, Florida, and Texas, analyzing the trends in senior care, the options available, the costs, and the contribution of the immigrants to the labor force.
Background of Study
Over the years, there has been a significant increase in the number of the aged population leading to an expansion of the senior care economy. Contextually, since 2019 the aged population has grown by 36% compared to the young population (65 years and below), which has only grown by 3%. As ACL (2020) puts it, the increased life expectancy has been as a result to the improved living conditions. A person born in 2019 has a higher life expectancy than one born in 1990. This shows that with time, life expectancy is increasing, and more people will reach the age of 65 years and above (Kilduff, 2021). As it were, there was a low life expectancy in the 1990s due to the lower number of children born during the Great Depression, which was characterized by tough economic conditions. However, after the Great Depression, the quality of life increased, increasing life expectancy and leading to a more aged population. The baby boomers were the first generation to have an increased life expectancy, and soon, all boomers will be over 65 years hence contributing to an increase in US aged population. As ACL(2020) posit, "In the US, the number of people aged 85 and up will more than double to 14.4 million by the year 2040". This means that out of every 5 Americans, one will be of retirement age. The increased access to healthcare advantages like the Medicare and Medicaid programs have contributed to increased life expectancy for baby boomers and to the trend of aging in the country (Costs. Medicare, n.d; Robin Rudowitz et al., 2021, ). The racial and ethnic groups in the US also contribute to the rise of older populations in the US. The predicted rise in the aged population means that there will be more demand for senior care in the upcoming years, and it is essential to navigate the economic options available for them while at the same time analyzing the impact of these options on the economy.
The increased demand for senior care has made facility-care workers a fast-growing occupation in the US. Immigrant workers are increasingly filling the positions of facility-care health workers in the US to help care for the increasing aged population. Since the 1990s, the number of immigrants in the United States has grown dramatically. Immigrants make up a significant share of the US workforce, and their impact is especially evident in the senior care economy. Immigrants work in healthcare occupations, including health assistants, registered nurses, and primary care providers, primarily needed in rural areas. According to research by Butcher et al. 2021, immigrant workers are more likely than native-Americans to work in the senior care economy. The educational backgrounds of immigrants are essential as most are highly skilled healthcare workers aged 25 and above. 35% of registered nurses and 36% of state physicians were born in foreign countries (Butcher et. al., 2021). However, most foreign healthcare professionals receive training abroad, and those not trained enroll in programs that guide them through the steps required to join the state's healthcare workforce. The programs support the roles in health that take four years to attain a college degree. Hence, these programs encourage low-skilled workers to join the health workforce as they can enroll in health programs and get the skills required to start working. Also, most immigrants work in the senior care economy because they help provide effective care to immigrant patients in the US. California, Texas, and Florida are the biggest states in the US, with a high population of immigrants. Immigrants in the US fall under the low-income earning group, and thus using immigrants to provide senior care helps make them a resource for the low-income earning group. Immigrant care workers are bilinguals and thus can help address the language barrier when caring for aged immigrant patients. In California, 77.5% of immigrant healthcare workers are bilingual (Zallman et al., 2019). This can help break the communication barrier and make the patient feel more comfortable with their caregiver, as they can communicate easily regarding their wants and needs. For example, in California, a community of immigrants based in Oakland provides personal support to the aging population.
Succinctly, there is an increase in the immigrant workforce in the senior care economy New American Economy Research Fund, 2020). However, there needs to be more on the impacts of the immigrant workforce on the US economy. Thus, it is essential to understand the impact that the immigrant workforce in the senior care economy will have on the US economy regarding GDP. Also, it is crucial to determine whether the supply of jobs and demand for senior care has increased or decreased with the aging population. According to many researchers, the patterns suggest that there will be an increase in demand for senior housing and care choices for seniors who require some degree of care. The future, however, is somewhat rocky. The business, which depends on employees to deliver services and care at the bedside, is concerned about growing labor shortages and the resultant rising cost of labor. One of the main challenges in this business sector is the labor shortage. The study will help come up with a concise conclusion regarding the impact of the immigrant workforce in the senior economy to the US economy regarding California, Texas, and Florida states. The research will help individuals understand what the senior care economy is doing to the US economy.
In the recent past, there has been a significant rise in the aged population, and it is estimated to rise gradually with time. The number of people aged 65 years and above is becoming more in the US, and by 2030, all the baby boomer’s generation will be 65 years and above, resulting in more population increase. As the aged population in the US continues to grow, the demand for facility senior caregivers is also growing (Hoyt, 2022). Immigrants supply a great share of senior care labor in California, Texas, and Florida (New American Economy Research Fund, 2020). However, little work concerns the impact of the senior care economy comprising the immigrant workforce in the US economy. Thus, the specific problem in this study is to investigate the impact of the immigrant workforce in the senior care economy on the US GDP and the supply of jobs and demand for senior care.
Statement of Purpose
This quantitative research study aims at investigating the impact of the immigrant workforce in the senior care economy on the US economy. The study will determine if there has been an increase or decrease in GDP over the recent years based on legal immigrant work in the senior care economy. It will also establish the impacts by determining whether the supply of jobs and demand for senior care has increased or decreased with the increase in the senior care economy. The study will be conducted using a case study approach with the US economy as the dependent variable and the legal immigrants in the aging care workforce as the independent variable. The case study will involve collecting various pieces of evidence about the US senior care economy and the immigrant workforce in the senior care sector. The case study will also involve a comprehensive analysis of research works from different researchers on the US senior care economy and senior care immigrant workforce.
This research study focuses on creating an understanding of the impact of legal immigrants in the senior care sector on the US economy in terms of GDP and labor demand and supply from the states of California, Texas, and Florida. The study will focus on answering two research questions to help determine the impacts. The first one is, "has GDP increased or decreased over the recent years based on the legal immigrant workforce in the senior care economy?" and the second question is, "has the amount of jobs supply and senior care demand increased or decreased over the recent years?" With these two research questions, it will be possible to come up with a concise conclusion about the impact of the senior care immigrant workforce on the US economy. The paper seeks to tell whether US GDP has declined or increased with the rise in the immigrant workforce in the senior care economy. There are two possible outcomes from this research study. One is that the senior care economy's immigrant workforce has no impact on the US economy. The other alternative is a decline or rises in GDP due to legal immigrant work in senior care. Undeniably, the growing senior economy has several impacts on the overall US economy. It must be assumed that the rise of the immigrant workforce will not impact the senior care economy and the overall US economy. There will be either a decline or rise in GDP and jobs supply and demand for senior care will either decrease or increase. To come up with concise answers to the research questions, the study focuses on California, Florida, and Texas since they have the highest contribution to the US economy and have the highest populations with both immigrants and old aged population.
As seen beforehand, the aging population in America is increasing at a high-rate necessitating facility-based senior care. This has translated into an increased demand for senior care workers. And as Zhang and others (2020) explains, the demand for senior care is high than the supply of workers. As a result, immigrant workers are increasingly being hired as senior caregivers in various US states. According to research by Zhang et al. (2020), the immigrant population accounts for about 18.2 percent of senior caregivers in the US. In a state like California, the highest percentage of the aged population relies on immigrant labor for facility-based care services. Also, immigrants who are primarily women, represent 70% of paid caregivers in California (60%), 60% in Texas, and 50% in Florida (Eckstein & Peri, 2018). Yet, even with the increased immigrant workers in senior care, there is still a shortage of healthcare workers. Numerous pieces of research in the issue of immigrant workers and the US aging population prompts the need to develop an evidence-based answer on the impact of the legal immigrant workforce in the senior care sector on the US economy. Has the GDP increased or decreased due to an increase in the legal immigrant workforce providing senior care? Has the demand for senior care and job supply increased or decreased? This research study will help establish clear answers to these questions and eliminate future incorrect predictions concerning the research questions. It will help the general population understand the relationship between the legal immigrant workforce in the senior care sector and the US economy. The research questions will be a guiding tool to facilitate a smooth pathway to the result.
The wider significance of this research study lies in its ability to serve as a potential creative bridge in quantitative research. The research study will help come up with a concise conclusion regarding the impact of the legal immigrant workforce in the senior care economy on the US economy. The findings will help create advancing knowledge in economics and healthcare. One of the ways through which the research findings will benefit the healthcare sector is that it will help understand the trends in the senior care economy. Senior care falls under the healthcare sector. Thus, when relevant authorities are updated with the existing trends in the senior care economy, they can make informed decisions that are in accordance with the existing trends.
The study is conducted using a case study approach which means that different data sources will be analyzed to deduce the current and future trends in the senior care economy. The aging population in California, Texas, and America is increasing at an alarming rate, which raises the need for senior care. The increased rate of the aged population in America has increased the demand for senior care. Increased demand for senior care impacted the healthcare sector and necessitated employing more healthcare providers to provide senior care to the aging population. The healthcare sector must employ more healthcare givers to cope with the increasing demand for senior caregivers. Thus, with this study, relevant stakeholders in the healthcare sector, including policymakers, will thus have a clear picture of how the decrease or increase affects the overall healthcare sector.
Understandably, the study findings will play a significant role in economics. The economic field is concerned with human beings and helps explain a country's economic status. The research findings in this paper will equip people with vast knowledge of the economic status of the US. The study seeks to determine whether the legal immigrant workforce will increase or decrease GDP. The GDP Of a country is a key economic indicator since the size of a country's economy is determined by GDP. The gross domestic product of a country is affected by many factors including what is happening in the healthcare sector. Almost all economic sectors help determine a country's economic status. Thus, with the finding of this research, economic experts will have relevant knowledge on how the legal immigrant workforce in the senior economy is affecting US GDP. The study will investigate how the legal immigrant workforce in the senior care economy is affecting the US economy. From this research question, it will be possible for economic experts to get clear pictures of the economic status from the healthcare sector's viewpoint.
Additionally, the research findings focus on addressing the existing gaps in the literature concerning the US economy and the legal immigrant workforce in the senior care economy. Several researchers have explained the stipulated rise in the aging population in the US and the rise of the immigrant workforce in the senior care economy. However, they have failed to address the impacts of these factors on the US economy. They have not touched on whether GDP will increase or decrease due to legal immigrant senior caregivers. Also, there have been controversies concerning the supply of jobs and demand for senior care. Some argue that the demand for senior care will rise while the supply of jobs will decrease. In contrast, others argue that the increased use of immigrant labor in senior care will create a balance between the demand for senior care and the supply of jobs. The findings of this study will thus help address this dilemma which acts as a gap in the literature concerning the senior legal immigrant workforce and the US economy.
A key assumption in this case study is that time will be enough to review different data sources to help establish the impact of the legal immigrant senior care workforce on the US economy. The research study assumes that the research study will take place within the allocated time and thus help come up with more accurate findings to the research questions. This assumption is necessary because time is important when conducting research using a case study approach. Another assumption in this study is that the Texas, Florida, and California states have the greatest contribution to the US economy, and this trend will remain the same during the period of this study. Usually, the economy is very volatile, and different factors in the economy keep changing depending on what is happening in the country. The three states that act as this study's background may not be among the highest contributors to the US economy. However, the study assumes they will remain the greatest contributors to help us develop contributors. The economic growth, inflation, unemployment percentage, and other factors that affect a country's economy will remain constant in all US states, making California, Texas, and Florida the biggest contributors to the US economy.
Additionally, the study assumes that the projected increase in the immigrant population in the US will remain the same. The trends that indicate a future rise in the aged population in the US will remain constant, and no factors will affect this trend. This assumption is necessary for this context since the study is concerned with the rising aged population and increased demand for legal immigrant senior care.
Every research has its limitations depending on the research approach used. Thus, this research study has potential limitations. The research study will be conducted using a case study approach, which will analyze quantitative data to come up with conclusions concerning the investigated issue which exposes the research to potential bias. The researcher may establish biased conclusions influenced by their previous experiences or what they think instead of what the research says. For instance, when seeking to determine whether GDP has increased or decreased because of the legal immigrant workforce in the senior care economy of California, Texas, and Florida, one may be tempted to assume that GDP will increase due to their reasons rather than what the available research says.
Another potential limitation is time constraints. Generally, case studies are time-consuming since they involve vigorous analysis of several data sources to help establish concise conclusions about the research topic. Thus, there is a possibility that more time will be needed to conduct intensive research on the issue being studied. Thus, time constraints will force the research to be conducted straightforwardly to avoid extra expenses that come along with an extended time in research. Another possibility resulting from time constraints is that the study may take longer than expected, failing to meet the deadline for each part of the study and the overall completion date.
Also, the complexity of the research topic may pose an eminent limitation to the study. The research topic is wide since it touches on different things, including the legal immigrant workforce, the senior care economy, the aged population in the US, and the US economy in terms of GDP. The complexity of this topic might make it difficult for a researcher to understand what they are expected to do and thus result in incorrect inferences and findings. The complexity may make a researcher fail to understand what is required of them, resulting o substandard research that does not substantially respond to the research questions.
Definition of Terms
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
GDP refers to the monetary value of services and goods produced in a country within a specific period, usually one year. GDP provides an overview of a country's economy, helping determine its economic health. In most cases, GDP is calculated annually, though, at times, it is calculated quarterly.
Immigrants refer to individuals who move from their countries and go to another country to live there. In other words, immigrants live in a country where they were not born. Most of the immigrants in the US are from India, Mexico, Vietnam, and China. Immigrants always provide cheap labor since they need money to help them survive. People may move from their countries to a new country either legally or illegally.
Legal immigrants are documented foreign-born individuals in the US. S A legal immigrant possess the necessary documents that allow them to stay in a country that is not theirs by birth. For instance, for one to be a legal immigrant in the US, they need to have a valid visa which shows that they are acceptable in the country. Also, one must pass through an inspection before being allowed to live in the US as a legal immigrant.
Senior care refers to services provided to the aging population to enable them to live a normal life that is less challenging. It can also be defined as healthcare assistance provided to aged individuals to help them with daily activities such as cleaning themselves, medication management, going to the toilet, bathing, and other self-care activities (Hoyt, 2022). Senior care primarily focuses on enabling the aged to live a comfortable lifestyle as they approach the end of life.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
The number of immigrants working in the US senior care sector has risen. This is attributed to the increased number of the aged population in the country, which has significantly increased the demand for senior facility caregivers. California, Texas, and Florida have the highest number of the older generation and immigrant workforce. Specifically, for a long time, Florida has served as a home for many immigrants. One of every five Florida residents is an immigrant (American Immigration Council, 2020). This explains why the immigrant workforce is high in Florida’s senior care sector. Facility-based Senior care services are essential since they enable older people to age appropriately and with high-quality facility care. Some facility care services provided to the aged population include helping them with self-care services such as feeding, medication, and visiting the toilet. Foreign-born healthcare workers constitute a disproportionate number of senior care providers in California, Texas, and Florida.
As much as the immigrant workforce is growing in the US senior economy, more information needs to be revealed concerning their economic impacts. The research thus focuses on exploring this issue by examining whether US GDP has declined or increased due to the legal immigrant workforce. It also seeks to establish whether the demand for labor and supply for senior care has declined or increased. This chapter presents an empirical literature review that forms the basis of this study. The chapter comprises several sections, including the literature search strategy, conceptual framework, literature review, and literature synthesis. The chapter also ends with a summary section which summarizes everything that has been covered throughout the chapter. The overall aim of all the sections included here is to help establish a reasonable basis for the study.
Literature Search Strategy
For this paper to come to fruition, several resources and databases were used. All through, current literature and sources (those within the last five years) were used. The main search engine is Google. Using google and key terms, it was possible to arrive at current websites which were quite useful. All the websites used were within this range of five years. The use of key search terms such as “older population and care and senior care”, “immigrants and senior care”, “workforce and senior care or elderly citizens”, “immigrant labor and American elderly or disabled people”, and “immigrants and US economy” was key. These were just some of the key search phrases used on the project.
Apart from the use of websites, google scholars also proved rich in current, authoritative, and reliable resources. Besides, most of the materials from Google scholar were quite credible and peer reviewed. With peer-reviewed articles, the research becomes more reliable and credible. It means that the papers have been well-critiqued and have passed the test of credibility. This database was thus quite useful. The key search terms were quite like those used on the websites.
Apart from the websites and google scholar, using the range of online libraries came in handy to enrich the research. Using library catalogs, it was possible to arrive at periodicals and collections of eBooks that could inform the research. Again, the use of key terms was very essential to arrive at relevant information.
Google as the search engine, google scholar, and online libraries were essentially the sources of materials used in this work. However, some of the concepts had
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