Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Let's discuss a psychological test or measurement that you find particularly interesting (maybe one you could use in a future dissertation). Briefly describe the test/mea - Writeedu

Let’s discuss a psychological test or measurement that you find particularly interesting (maybe one you could use in a future dissertation). Briefly describe the test/mea


Let's discuss a psychological test or measurement that you find particularly interesting (maybe one you could use in a future dissertation).
Briefly describe the test/measurement for us:
What is the name of the test (cite and reference authors)?
What does it measure?
How does it measure the construct (scale properties)?
Who is the target population for test?
What are the qualifications required to administer and interpret this test? 

Please provide a copy of the test or measurement. Attach using the plus button.

Psychological Tests and Measurements

Keiser Graduate School Doctoral Residency July 24-27, 2013

Keiser Graduate School Doctoral Program


Psychological Tests and Measurements

Critical issues affecting psychological testing

Categories of psychological tests

Survey instruments

Critical Issues – Validity

1. Validity

Construct validity: Does the instrument measure what it claims to be measuring?

Content validity: Does the instrument measure the complete scope of the construct?


Validity (continued)

Criterion-related validity: Does the instrument measure accurately? Determined by testing against another measure or itself over time.

Concurrent validity: Does the instrument measure comparably to an exiting measure of the same construct?

Predictive validity: How well does the instrument predict future performance or construct?

Critical Issues – Reliability

2. Reliability

Inter-rater (inter-observer) reliability: Establishes an estimate of consistency between raters/observers

Internal consistency: Assesses consistency between items within a test (Inter-item reliability)

Test-retest reliability: Demonstrates consistency across time

Parallel forms reliability: Assesses consistency between two versions of a test

Norm-Referenced Tests

Raw Scores

Standard Normal Deviation



Percentile Ranks

Raw Scores


Standard Normal Distribution

Adapted from “Elements of Statistics and Probability,” by L. Green (2008). Mathematics Department, Lake Tahoe Community College, South Lake Tahoe, CA. Retrieved from



T Score

T-scores are standardized scores with a mean of 50 and a standardized deviation of 10.

Z-scores can be converted to T-scores:

T = 50 + 10(z)

Percentile Ranks

Percentile Ranks: Assess the percentage of scores that fall below a given test score. The median of raw scores is 50%. Half the scores fall below the median, and half are above the median.

All together now…

Adapted from “Elements of Statistics and Probability,” by L. Green (2008). Mathematics Department, Lake Tahoe Community College, South Lake Tahoe, CA. Retrieved from

Qualifications of Assessment Administrators

“Psychologists do not promote the use of psychological assessment techniques by unqualified persons, except when such use is conducted for training purposes with appropriate supervision” (American Psychological Association, 2010, section 9.07)

Categories of Ψ Assessments

Neuropsychological Testing

Purpose: To assess whether cognitive, behavioral, and/or emotional functioning may be affected due to CNS damage

Neuropsychological Test Batteries

Halstead-Reitan (about 8 hours; Reitan & Wolfson, 1993).

Luria-Nebraska (about 4 hours; Golden, Punsch, & Hammeke, 1978)

Neuropsychological Testing



Gestalt Test

Adapted from “Bender Gestalt Test,” by M. Wertheimer (1938). Retrieved from

Neuropsychological Testing

Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975)

Screening instrument for cognitive impairment

11 questions assess orientation, registration, attention/calculation, recall, and language.

Neuropsychological Testing

Wechsler Memory Scale-IV (Wechsler, 2009a)

Visual working memory

Auditory memory

Visual memory

Immediate memory

Delayed memory

Personality Testing – Objective

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2

(MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989).

567 items (1 – 2 hours)

10 Clinical Scales

10 Validity Scales

Personality Testing – Objective

MMPI-2 – Jeffrey Dahmer (Katz, n.d.)

MMPI-2 L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si 50 76 48 52 83 67 105 65 66 53 82 84 50

Personality Testing – Objective

MMPI-2 – Jodi Arias (Winch, 2013)

MMPI-2 L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si 51 79 53 64 81 79 107 45 98 75 88 67 52 Column1 L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si

Personality Testing – Objective


MMPI-2 – Jeffrey Dahmer and Jodi Arias

Arias L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si 51 79 53 64 81 79 107 45 98 75 88 67 52 Dahmer L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si 50 76 48 52 83 67 105 65 66 53 82 84 50

Personality Testing – Objective

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory – III

(MCMI-III; Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1994).

176 true/false items

14 personality disorder scales

10 clinical syndrome scales

Corresponds to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic categories (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994)

Personality Testing – Projective

Rorschach Inkblot Test

Exner Scoring System (Exner, 1997/2003)

Cognitive Triad: information processing, cognitive mediation, and ideation.

Standardized administration and scoring



Thematic Apperception Test

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray & Bellak, 1973)

Assessment of a person’s perception of themselves, the world, and interpersonal relationships

Standardized administration– tell a story

What led up to this?

What is happening?

What are the characters thinking and feeling?

What is the outcome?

Thematic Apperception Test

Thematic Apperception Test

Diagnostic Instruments


Composite International Diagnostic Interview for DSM–IV (CIDI; Robins et al., 1989)

Clinician Administered PTSD Scale

(CAPS; Blake et al., 1995)

Diagnostic Instruments


Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV

(SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002).

Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia: Present and Lifetime Version

(K-SADS-PL; Axelson, Birmaher, Zelazny, Kaufman, & Gill,2009).

Unstructured Interviews

Intelligence Testing

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008)

Indexes Subscales in Index Additional Subscales
Verbal Comprehension Similarities, Vocabulary, Information Comprehension
Perceptual Reasoning Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Visual Puzzles Picture Completion, Figure Weights
Working Memory Digit Span, Arithmetic Letter-number Sequencing
Processing Speed Symbol Search, Coding Cancellation

Intelligence Testing

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition

(WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003)

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Third Edition

(WPPSI-III; Wechsler, 2002).

Intelligence Testing

Raven’s Progressive


(Raven, Raven,

& Court, 2003).

Nonverbal test of

general intelligence.

Achievement Tests – WRAT4

Wide Range Achievement Test – Fourth Edition (WRAT4; Wilkinson & Robertson, 2006).

Word Reading

Sentence Comprehension


Math Computation

Achievement Tests – WJIII

Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJIII; Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001a).

22 subtests include reading, spelling, writing, comprehension, calculation, following directions, recall

Normed on 8,818 children and adults (K – college)

Co-normed with Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

(Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001b)

Achievement Tests- WIAT-III

Wechsler Individual Achievement Test – Third Edition (WIAT-III; Wechsler, 2009b).

Normed on ages 4 to 50; preschool to 12th grade

Identifies academic strengths, weaknesses

Aids in diagnosis of learning disabilities

Aptitude and Ability Tests

Aptitude tests: Measure relative strengths of innate (natural) abilities and competencies, capacity to learn from future training, and talent. They do not measure accumulated knowledge.

Ability tests: Often used during hiring process to measure cognitive abilities (verbal, abstract reasoning, numeric). They are used to predict future perform job performance, decision-making ability, and problem solving skills.

Symptom Inventories

Beck Depression Inventory-II

(BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996)

21 items, self-administered

Hamilton Anxiety Scale

(HAM-A; Hamilton, 1959)

14 items, clinician-administered

PTSD Symptom Scale – Self Report

(PSS-SR; Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993)

17 items, self-administered, assess severity of PTSD symptoms

Survey Instruments

Historical Measures – gather retrospective data

Exposure to Abusive and Supportive Environments Parenting Inventory

(EASE-PI; Nicholas & Bieber, 1997)

What can we survey?



Survey Instruments

What can we survey (continued)




Satisfaction levels

The list is endless

How to Select the Right Measure

Be very clear about the construct that will be measured

Do a thorough literature review of all studies that examined similar constructs

What measures were used in prior research?

What are the pros and cons of existing measures?

How to Select the Right Measure

Is an existing instrument suitable?

Do existing measures have demonstrated validity and reliability?

How will the instrument be administered?

Self Report – Are participants literate?

Language appropriate

Interviewer/clinician administered vs. milieu staff

Length of instrument

Appropriate for the setting and population

Quantity/Frequency of administration

How to Select the Right Measure

If an appropriate existing measure exists, use it.

If not, can an existing instrument be easily modified?

Modifying the instrument means that any prior data on reliability and validity no longer applies.

Scale Development

If no existing scale will do, develop a new scale.

Brainstorm with experts

Generate a huge number of survey items

Pilot the measure

Inter-item reliability (internal consistency)

Remove inconsistent items

Re-pilot the measure


American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychological Association (2010). Standard 9: Assessment. In Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct: 2010 amendments. Retrieved from

Axelson, D., Birmaher, B., Zelazny, J., Kaufman, J., & Gill, M.K. (2009). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children: Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL 2009 Working Draft). Pittsburgh, PA: Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic. Retrieved from

References (continued)

Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., & Brown, G.K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.

Blake, D. B., Weathers, F. W., Nagy, L. M., Kaloupek, D. G., Gusman, F. D., Charney, D. S., & Keane, T.M. (1995). The development of a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 75–90.

Butcher, J. N., Dahlstrom, W G, Graham, J. R., Tellegen, A., & Kaemmer, B. (1989). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2): Manual for administration and scoring. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Exner, J. E., Jr. (2003). The Rorschach: A comprehensive system: Vol. 1. Basic foundations (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.


References (continued)

First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., and Williams, J. B.W. (2002). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Patient Edition (SCID-I/P). New York, NY: New York State Psychiatric Institute.

Foa, E. B., Riggs, D. S., Dancu, C. V., & Rothbaum, B.O. (1993). Reliability and validity of a brief instrument for assessing post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6(4), 459 -473

Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E., & McHugh, P.R. (1975). "Mini-mental state.” A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal Of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189-98.

Golden, C. J., Punsch, A. D., & Hammeke, T. A. (1978). Diagnostic validity of a standardized neuropsychological battery derived from Luria’s neuropsychological tests. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46(6), 1258–1265.

References (continued)

Hamilton, M. (1959). The assessment of anxiety states by rating. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 32, 50–55.

Katz, G.S. (n.d.). Structured personality tests. Retrieved from

Millon, T., Millon. C., & Davis. R. (1994). Millon Clinical Inventory-III manual. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.

Murray, H.A., & Bellak, L. (1973). Thematic Apperception Test. San Antonio, TX: Pearson.

Nicholas, K.B., & Bieber, S.L. (1997). Assessment of perceived parenting behaviors: The Exposure to Abusive and Supportive Environments Parenting Inventory (EASE-PI). Journal of Family Violence, 12(3), 275-291 .

References (continued)

Raven, J., Raven, J.C., & Court, J.H. (2003). Manual for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales. Section 1: General Overview. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.

Reitan, R. M., & Wolfson, D. (1993). The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery. Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.

Robins, L. N., Wing, J., Wittchen, H. U., Helzer, J. E., Babor, T. F., Burke, J., . . . Towle, L.H. (1989). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview: An epidemiologic instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 1069–1077.

Wechsler, D. (2002). Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.

References (continued)

Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.

Wechsler, D. (2008). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.

Wechsler, D. (2009a). Wechsler Memory Scale–Fourth Edition. San Antonio, TX: Pearson.

Wechsler, D. (2009b). Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.

Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). Wide Range Achievement Test 4 professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

References (continued)

Winch, G. (2013, April 18). Live blog: Experts in Arias trial in psychological war? [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K.S., & Mather, N. (2001a). Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K.S., & Mather, N. (2001b). Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities Examiner's Manual. Itasca, IL: Riverside.














Psychological Testing H

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S e v e n t h E d i t i o n

Psychological Testing History, Principles, and Applications

G l o b a l E d i t i o n

Robert J. Gregory Professor Emeritus

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