Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Debates on Stress Coping Lazarus's cognitive approach suggests that the way you cope with stress is based on your mental process of how you interpret and appraise a stressful situation - Writeedu

Debates on Stress Coping Lazarus’s cognitive approach suggests that the way you cope with stress is based on your mental process of how you interpret and appraise a stressful situation

Debates on Stress Coping

Lazarus's cognitive approach suggests that the way you cope with stress is based on your mental process of how you interpret and appraise a stressful situation in which the level of appraisal determines the level of stress and the unique coping strategies used (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). According to Lazarus, there are specific events or stressors that influence an individual's cognitions of an event, known as appraisals, and your coping strategies refer to your cognitive and behavioral efforts to master the stressful event (Franken, 2007). The primary appraisal assesses whether the situation is threatening, and the secondary appraisal assesses how we should cope with the stress (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).

Another most debated gender stress–coping study has been the topic of orientation regarding gender and stress. Stress theory is often used to explain the relationship between social disadvantage and health (Scheid & Horwitz, 1999). Stress theory provides a useful approach to understand the relationship between pervasive prejudice and discrimination and health outcomes, but the predictions based on the theory need to be carefully investigated (Aneshensel & Pearlin, 1987).

Another debate on stress coping focuses on role overload. Balancing both work and family often causes a role overload (Barnette & Gareis, 2008). Others see role stress as significant because it explains why women experience more stressful events and strain than men. Poverty also presents a risk for mental disorders for women; statistics show that those who live in poverty are at least two and a half times more likely to receive a mental health diagnosis than those who are not poor (Mossakowski, 2008).

Even if women as a group are not exposed to more stress than men, it is plausible that some subgroups of women—poor women, black women, and single mothers—are disadvantaged in significant ways (Acker, 2000).

In a 2- to 3-page analysis p aper in a Microsoft Word document, address the following:

  • Do women and men have different coping styles for stress? Evidence with regard to stress and gender has been mixed for decades. Compare the coping styles for stress of both men and women. Support your reasoning with research.
  • Some argue that female gender groups are more stressed than lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) persons as a group. Some are of the opinion that lesbian and bisexual women are exposed to greater stress than heterosexual women because of added disadvantaged sexual minority status and that lesbian and bisexual women are exposed to greater stress than gay and bisexual men because of their added disadvantaged gender status. On the basis of your readings, experiences, and research, what are your findings?

Submission Details:

  • Cite all sources using APA format on a separate page


Acker, J. (2000). Rewriting class, race, and gender: Problems in feminist rethinking.
           In M. M. Ferre, J. Lorber, & B. B. Hess (Eds.), Revisiting gender (pp. 3–43).
           Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.

Aneshensel, C. S., & Pearlin, L. I. (1987). The structural contexts of sex differences
           in stress. In R. C. Barnett, L. Biener L, & G. K. Baruck (Eds.), Gender and
           stress (pp. 75–95). New York, NY: Free Press.

Barnett, R. C., & Gareis, K. C. (2008). Community: The critical missing link in
           work-family research. In A. Marcus-Newhall, D. F. Halpern, & S. J. Tan
           (Eds.), Changing realities of work and family: A multidisciplinary approach
           (pp. 71–84). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Franken, R. E. (2007). Human motivation (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY:

Mossakowski, K. (2008). Dissecting the influence of race, ethnicity, and
           socioeconomic status on mental health in young adulthood. Research on
           Aging, 30(6), 649–671.

Scheid, T. L., & Horwitz, A. V. (1999). The social context of mental health and
           illness. In A. F. Horwitz & T. L. Scheid (Eds.), A handbook for the study
           of mental health: Social contexts, theories, and systems (pp. 151–160).
           Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Emotional Expression.html

Emotional Expression

Are there similarities in the expression of emotions? Do men and women express feelings differently?

Research confirms that there are gender differences in expression of emotions. Typically, men hold negative attitudes about emotional expression and women tend to express their emotions more freely.

In a metanalysis conducted by Bettencourt and Miller, results indicated that men tend to respond more aggressively in response to physical provocation, negative feedback concerning their intelligence, and "frustrations," including not being able to succeed, not being able to finish a task, recognizing their own inability, and traffic congestion. Conversely, women tend to respond more aggressively in response to "insults," such as insensitive and condescending behavior, impolite treatment, and rude comments.

In addition to responding differently to environmental stimuli, men and women also display different emotions when experiencing the same feelings. Paul Ekman coined the term "display rules" to describe this concept. What we experience and what we display can vary greatly and impact us uniquely. Have you ever seen someone laugh in the middle of a heated argument? Or have you ever wondered why there is such a vast array of emotions displayed at a funeral? Some people cry uncontrollably, others laugh as they reminisce, a few yell in anger, and some maintain stoic composure. Display rules are also evident in classic stereotypical examples of men who refuse to express emotions openly, or women who struggle to display actual emotions surrounding mothering.

You will bring your own experiences and biases to the discussion in regards to emotion, aggression, and gender because these topics are often personal and built from years of experiences and observations. However, the research reviewed above highlights an important concept that many are likely to agree on—men and women tend to respond differently when faced with the same situation.

South University Established 1899 Call the Technical Support Help Desk 1-888-4443404 Copyright South University


Stress & Coping.html

Stress & Coping

The effects of stress are directly linked to coping, or our ability to handle problems. The learned component of coping includes both healthy and maladaptive coping skills. Culture and society play an important role in influencing the behavior of individuals. Some cultures have different acceptable ways for dealing with stress, such as meditation. Some have gender communication expectations that may restrict one gender from expressing emotion and, as a result, may find differences between male and female stress-coping styles even within subcultural contexts.

There appears to be a link between avoidance coping, or attempts to avoid stressful situations rather than solve them, and depression in both men and women. The influence of social support may be more prominent in understanding women's reliance on various types of coping. Men tend to perceive less social support, so they tend to keep thoughts to themselves and detach themselves from family and friends.

Cronkite and Moos found that women who reported more family support relied less on avoidance coping and showed less depressed mood than women with less family support. This pattern of results was not observed among men in their study.

Based on social cultural influences, schemas, and gender expectations, we find men who are depressed tend to control their emotions to hide what they may feel, while women find it easier to verbalize their emotions, and are more likely to shed tears.

We are constantly inundated with popular media depictions of what a man or woman does or does not do related to health and wellness, with many of these depictions being stereotypical. As you have learned so far, the best method to use when analyzing the validity of biases in our society is to compare the popular media messages with the research on the topic.

South University Established 1899 Call the Technical Support Help Desk 1-888-4443404 Copyright South University


Health & Life Expectancy.html

Health & Life Expectancy

You may have heard the saying, "Women are sicker; men die quicker." Research on gender morbidity and mortality rates support this. While women have higher rates of illnesses, men have a shorter life expectancy. Why might this be the case?

As most women give birth to children or use prescription contraceptives, they begin regularly engaging in the practice of attending doctor's appointments by early adulthood. This early exposure results in more women receiving annual checkups and general medical care from physicians throughout their lifetime. Therefore, women are able to benefit more from preventative medicine than men simply because they are more likely to be in medical environments.

In comparison to men, women monitor their own health more vigilantly and practice better health behaviors. Studies have also indicated that women are more likely to report medical problems to their doctors and seek medical attention when they are ill. Gender differences in reporting behaviors are influenced by the traditional gender norms. It is acceptable for women, the "weaker sex," to seek help when necessary.

On the other hand, men, the "stronger sex," are traditionally encouraged to show no weaknesses and to "tough it out" when ill or injured. In comparison to women, men are more likely to engage in at-risk behaviors such as smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol. In addition, men are more prone to die from accidents and violent behaviors, including motor vehicle accidents, firearm-related accidents, suicide, and homicide.

As you can see, many variables influence the health of men and women throughout the life span.

South University Established 1899 Call the Technical Support Help Desk 1-888-4443404 Copyright South University

Our website has a team of professional writers who can help you write any of your homework. They will write your papers from scratch. We also have a team of editors just to make sure all papers are of HIGH QUALITY & PLAGIARISM FREE. To make an Order you only need to click Ask A Question and we will direct you to our Order Page at WriteEdu. Then fill Our Order Form with all your assignment instructions. Select your deadline and pay for your paper. You will get it few hours before your set deadline.

Fill in all the assignment paper details that are required in the order form with the standard information being the page count, deadline, academic level and type of paper. It is advisable to have this information at hand so that you can quickly fill in the necessary information needed in the form for the essay writer to be immediately assigned to your writing project. Make payment for the custom essay order to enable us to assign a suitable writer to your order. Payments are made through Paypal on a secured billing page. Finally, sit back and relax.

Do you need an answer to this or any other questions?

Do you need help with this question?

Get assignment help from Paper Writing Website and forget about your problems.

WriteEdu provides custom & cheap essay writing 100% original, plagiarism free essays, assignments & dissertations.

With an exceptional team of professional academic experts in a wide range of subjects, we can guarantee you an unrivaled quality of custom-written papers.

Chat with us today! We are always waiting to answer all your questions.

Click here to Place your Order Now