27 Dec a. GPS receivers on rubber duckies
Because the receiver is fixed to the ground, if one moves—then the ground itself moved! This change could indicate a few things, including tectonic plate motion, landsliding, or the bulging of a magma chamber!
Geologists can also pound 2 stakes into the ground, and then monitor their location during surveys.
It is useful to place 2 stakes or GPS receivers on either side of a volcano or an earthquake fault to monitor any crustal motion that occurs.
Which of the following events resulted in stretching of the crust such that the GPS receivers or markers move further apart?
Hint: draw a sketch for each scenario and listen to Kyle’s story!
a. A quiet period of inactivity for the Mt. Waialeale caldera on the island of Kauai.
b. Emptying and deflation of the magma chamber below Pu’u O’o Crater on the island of Hawaii.
c. Any quiet period of inactivity between 2 earthquakes on the San Andreas fault.
d. Filling and swelling of the magma chamber below Pu’u O’o Crater on the island of Hawaii.
A number of studies indicate periods of deformation on the floor of Yellowstone caldera and outside of the caldera. The total stretching or bulging over the past couple decades amounts to about 70 centimeters of swelling!
What process does this deformation most likely reflect?
Hint: The answer is mentioned in the Yellowstone talk!
a. Magma leaving the chamber buried below the floor of the caldera.
b. Earth tides in northwestern Wyoming
c. Magma filling the chamber buried below the floor of the caldera.
d. Temperature changes due to solar radiation.
What was unique about the 2018 eruption of Kilauea, when compared with the 1924 eruption?
Hint: Many similarities are discussed, and the difference is also highlighted, if you listen to the K?lauea talk until the ending.
a. The viscosity of the lava
b. The fissure eruption
c. Drop of the lava lake level in the summit crater of Kilauea
d. The phreatic eruption
Collapse of the flank of the big Hawaiian island happened toward the south and dropped the land into the sea! In some ways, this event is similar to the collapse of a large bulge on the side of Mt. St. Helens.
In your homework, we described the chain of events leading to the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Now we focus on a similar story for Kilauea via Kyle’s talk.
Which of the following events did NOT occur during BOTH the Mt. St. Helens and Kilauea eruptions?
a. A large magnitude earthquake
b. A large landslide-type collapse
c. A lateral volcanic blast
d. Emptying of magma from a buried magma chamber
True or False?
The volcanic gases emitted during the 2018 eruption will have a long term impact on climate.
Hint: The answer is mentioned in the K?lauea talk! Be sure to watch the question and answer period at the end of the talk, too.
How much carbon dioxide (CO2) does a volcanic eruption of Kilauea typically emit?
Hint: The answer is mentioned in the Yellowstone and K?lauea talk!
a. 45,000 tons per day (equal to one large coal-fired power plant)
b. 450,000 tons per day (equal to ten large coal-fired power plants)
c. 4,500,000 tons per day (equal to 100 large coal-fired power plants)
d. 45,000,000 tons per day (equal to 1000 large coal-fired power plants)
What new tool did geologists use to estimate the flow rates of lava travelling from Kilauea to the sea over the duration of this eruption?
Hint: The answer is mentioned by Kyle in the K?lauea talk!
a. GPS receivers on rubber duckies
b. Radio transmitters on rubber duckies
c. Thermal sensors on rubber duckies
d. Models of the landscape from drones
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