Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Analyze research literature in relation to a meaningful and justified gap in research for the PhD dissertation. Ground dissertation research in a theoretical/conceptual framework - Writeedu

Analyze research literature in relation to a meaningful and justified gap in research for the PhD dissertation. Ground dissertation research in a theoretical/conceptual framework

 

PLEASE  FOLLOW THE DISERTAION GUDIE 

MUST BE PHD LEVEL WRITTEN 

CHECK FOR GRAMMER AND SPELLING 

MUST BE ABLE TO COMPLETE REVISIONS PROVIDED BY BOTH CHAIR MEMEBERS AT ANY GIVEN TIME. 

NEED NO LATER THAN 4/12/2022 (SOONER IF POSSIBLE)

SEE CHAPTER ONE BUT PLEASE USE A DIFFERENT WORD DOCUMENT AND I WILL PUT THE TWO TOGEHTER. 

To complete Chapter 2, you will need to:

  • Analyze research literature in relation to a meaningful and justified gap in research for the PhD dissertation.
  • Ground dissertation research in a theoretical/conceptual framework related to an identified social-educational problem.

Learning Resources

Literature Review Resources
Websites

Walden University Office of Research and Doctoral Services. (2018u). Student research support: Write your research. Retrieved from https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/research-center/student-research/writing

Walden University Library. (2018a). Keyword searching: Finding articles on your topic: Searching basics [Multimedia file]. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/keyword

Walden University Library. (2018b). Library guide to capstone literature reviews: Search skills. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/doctoral/literaturereview/searchskills

Walden University Library. (2018c). The research process: Home. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/researchprocess

Theoretical Framework Resources
Websites

Walden University Office of Research and Doctoral Services. (2012). Student research support: Learn research theory. Retrieved from https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/research-center/student-research/theory

Walden University Office of Research and Doctoral Services. (2018g).  Student research administration: PhD dissertation program: PhD dissertation process and documents. Retrieved from https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/research-center/program-documents

Walden University Library. (2018d). Theorists and theories: Discover theorists and theories [Multimedia file]. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/theory

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An Examination of Police Brutality and its Impact on Victims’ Families

Jamisha Riddick

WaldenU

Title: An Examination of Police Brutality and Its Impact on Victims’ Families

Social Problem

Police brutality has negative effects on the victims themselves because the victims' families are also affected by it. Police violence leads to mental health issues and sometimes death to the victims, which affects their families (Brunson & Wade, 2019). According to Miller and Vittrup (2020), it is estimated that since 2015, more than 1,000 people are killed annually by the police per The Mapping Police Violence Project.

Gaps in Literature

Limited research has been conducted to determine how police brutality affects the victims' families and how it affects them. Research by Miller & Vittrup suggested that police violence causes either death or physical and emotional injury to people who directly experience it. According to Miller & Vittrup, communities are also affected mentally by high-profile incidents of police violence. For family members and friends who see their loved one injured or killed by the police under unexpected and unexplained circumstances can be terrifying (Miller & Vittrup, 2020).

Purpose

The focus of this research is to study the effects of police brutality on victims' families. It aims at forming a connection between police brutality and its economic, psychological, and emotional impact on the well-being of victims' families (Miller & Vittrup, 2020). The research would study how the families of police brutality coped with seeing their family members injured or killed by law enforcement officers. The research study will advance the body of research concerning the impact of police brutality on the mental, social, psychological, and emotional well-being of victims’ families.

Significance

The findings of this research study cover a gap in the existing literature on police brutality by focusing on the perspective of the impact it has on the victims’ families as opposed to focusing racial profiling which has an abundance of previous researchers. The research on the effects of police brutality on victims’ families will supplement existing but limited research. There is existing literature on the issues affecting the families of the victims of police violence, and my research aims to add to the existing research. My research will provide professionals in the criminal justice system with information on how police brutality affects the families of the victims and the community. Victims of police brutality, have been consistently inattentive, branded, and even injured normally in research studies (Lyons et al. 2013).

The significance of this research aligns with the problem statement because of the alarming rate with which incidents of police brutality continue to increase poses a great population health risk, and stakeholders in the criminal justice system must be made aware of its dangers so that they can work on ways to reduce it and punish perpetrators (Miller & Vittrup, 2020). The findings of this research can be used to present evidence of how police brutality is affecting families and offer insight to the society on the proper measures that are put in place to protect people from police violence.

Background

The main keywords used to search for materials on the topic, 'effects of police violence on victims' families' on online databases, included mental health, social status, economic status, police violence, victim’s families, well-being, and psychological health (Alang et al., 2017). The online databases included those of different criminal justice departments across the United States and SAGE journals.

1. Miller & Vittrup (2020) provides information on both the direct and indirect impact of police and racial bias on the families of African American victims.

2. Bryant‐Davis et al., 2017 discuss about police brutality on racial and ethnic minorities and its effects on the families and communities of this population.

3. Brunson & Wade (2019) talks of how the police find it hard to gain the cooperation of communities on investigations such as urban gun violence. The article suggests that the reason for this may be because of how most communities have been direct and indirect victims of the effects of police brutality and that is why they do not trust them.

4. Alang et al., 2017 discusses about the effects of police brutality on the health of African Americans who happen to be the victims of police violence at disproportionate rates. This article provides insights that can be used by scholars in the sector of public health.

Theoretical Framework

The critical race theory is a practice of interrogating the role of racism and race in society. The critical race theory critiques how institutionalized racism and social construction of race and maintains a racial status system that lowers people of color to the bottom tiers. The critical race theory maintains that racism is not an issue of the past (Delgado & Stefancic, 2017). The theory acknowledges that the legacy of segregation, slavery, and the burden of second-class citizenship on African Americans and other people of color continues to exist in the social fabric of the United States.

The critical race theory relates to the issue of police brutality and its effects on the victims’ families keeping in mind that race is not biologically real but rather a socially constructed issue. The critical race theory states that racism is a problem that is codified in law and embedded into structured and public policies. Therefore, the issue of police brutality especially towards the African American population in disproportionate rates is caused by institutionalized racism and some public policies.

The critical race theory acts as the theoretical framework that explains the high rates of police brutality especially towards Black males. The negative stereotypes directed towards Black males creates an environment that justified killings and violence towards the said population by law enforcement officials. The critical race theory explains the concept of White Supremacy and how it has extended police brutality towards the African and African American population. The theory explains the history of racism and the part it plays in contemporary racism and oppression of the inferior races (Delgado & Stefancic, 2017). The history of racism, as explained by the critical race theory explains how racism evolves, giving an example of how long ago, Black men used to be lynched due to racial stereotypes, to how currently Black men are being victims of police brutality at disproportionate rates.

Research Questions

The main research question is what impact has police brutality had on the families of the victims How has the family experience impacted their perception of the police? How does race play a critical role in police brutality?

Research Methods

The nature of this study would be qualitative research with a repeated measures design with consistent comprehension of how families of victims of police brutality cope with seeing their loved one injured either physically or emotionally or killed at the hands of law enforcement agents. The research would use the phenomenological method that attempts to understand and make sense of the meanings of experiences of people. This research attempts to understand the experiences of families who have had their family members either killed or injured by police officers through police violence.

Sources of Data

The main sources of data would be the participants themselves and literature materials on the same topic and problem statement. The literature materials would be sorted according to relevance in terms of time and data presented. The literature materials would serve to supplement the information gathered from the phenomenological research.

Limitations, Challenges, or Barriers

The main challenge with conducting this research is that victims’ families may be reluctant to provide any information on how they have been forced to cope with the idea that their loved one was either injured or killed by people who were supposed to protect them. The reluctance could be from the fear of being a target for the perpetrators who would not want their identities revealed (Bryant‐Davis, T., Adams et al., 2017). Families may also be reluctant because they would not like to relive their worst nightmare as they recounted their experiences of seeing their loved on in pain or dead.

Aligned Research Study

This research problem statement aligns with the social problem which is how police brutality affects victims’ families. It also aligns with the research method which is a phenomenological study. The phenomenological study seeks to explain and gain understanding of human experiences. The research question also aligns with the research problem, which is the effects of police brutality of victims’ families.

References

Alang, S., McAlpine, D., McCreedy, E., & Hardeman, R. (2017). Police brutality and black health: setting the agenda for public health scholars. American journal of public health107(5), 662-665.

Brunson, R. K., & Wade, B. A. (2019). “Oh, hell no, we don't talk to police” Insights on the lack of cooperation in police investigations of urban gun violence. Criminology & Public Policy18(3), 623-648.

Bryant‐Davis, T., Adams, T., Alejandre, A., & Gray, A. A. (2017). The trauma lens of police violence against racial and ethnic minorities. Journal of Social Issues73(4), 852-871.

Delgado, R., &, J. (2017). Critical race theory. New York University Press.

Lyons, H. Z., Bike, D. H., Ojeda, L., Johnson, A., Rosales, R. & Flores, L. Y. (2013). Qualitative research as social justice practice with culturally diverse populations. Journal of Social Action in Counseling & Psychology, 5(2), 10-25.

Miller, C., & Vittrup, B. (2020). The indirect effects of police racial bias on African American families. Journal of Family Issues41(10), 1699-1722.

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Abstract

An Examination of Police Brutality and Its Impact on Victims’ Families

by

Jamisha Riddick

MA, Walden University, 2021

MA, Saint Leo University, 2018

BS, Norfolk State University, 2016

Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

Management

Walden University

June 2022

Abstract

Police brutality is when law enforcement officer aggressively abuses citizens, either verbally or physically. Excessive force, either physically or psychologically, is used to frighten others. This type of cruelty has quickly spread over the world and has always been covered by the media. Sexual assault by police, illegal arrests, racial prejudice, police corruption, and oppression are all part of it. Police personnel are seen as law enforcers tasked with keeping society's law and order in line. Despite the hazards they face on the job, police officers occasionally opt to use excessive force even when the conditions do not allow it. The vicious police force routinely targets minorities, such as African Americans, Hispanics, and Mexican nationals. According to a Harvard University study, African Americans and Hispanics are more likely than other races to be victims of police brutality. Because police violence affects the victims' families, it has a negative influence on the victims themselves. The goal of this research is to see how victims' families are affected by police violence. This study fills a gap in the present literature on police brutality by focusing on the impact on victims' families rather than racial profiling, which has been the focus of numerous previous studies. This research issue statement addresses the social topic of how police brutality affects victims' family. The problem statement is based on the dominant group's long-held belief in superiority, which devalues other people and so serves as a justification for law enforcement actions that have diverse consequences for victims' families. It also aligns with the research approach, which is a phenomenological study.

An Examination of Police Brutality and Its Impact on Victims’ Families

by

Jamisha Riddick

MA, Walden University, 2021

MA, Saint Leo University, 2018

BS, Norfolk State University, 2016

Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

Management

Walden University

June 2022

Table of Contents Dedication 4 Acknowledgments 5 Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study 6 Social Change Implication 8 Gaps in Literature 10 Purpose of the Study 11 Research Questions 12 Relevance of the Study 12 Background 14 Theoretical Framework 19 Research Methods 20 Sources of Data 21 Limitation, Challenges, or Barriers 21 Aligned Research Study 22 References 23

Dedication

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study

When cops actively mistreat civilians, either verbally or physically, it is referred to as police brutality. Excessive force is employed to intimidate others, either physically or psychologically. This form of savagery has swiftly expanded over the world and has always been featured in the press. It involves sexual assault by police, unlawful arrests, racial bias, police corruption, and oppression. Excessive force is frequently used against vulnerable community groups such as the elderly, the poor, and the disabled. The major issue with police brutality is that the officers who are meant to protect citizens are the ones who kill them, and then eventually get away with no consequences. The study will provide a conclusion based on research about police brutality to generate a solution or even more condemnation about it.

Police officers are viewed as law enforcers responsible with maintaining society's law and order. Despite the dangers that police officers encounter on the job, they occasionally choose to use unreasonable force even when the circumstances do not permit it. The police seize the suspects, violently pat them down, force them against a wall, and even shoot them without being armed, which is known as police brutality (Charney and Robertson, 2013). The topic of police brutality is frequently overlooked, with most people dismissing police brutality complaints as fabrications since, in most cases, the officers involved are always shielded by their local police agencies (William, 2015). The goal of the study is to show how police brutality is a major problem that politicians must address. Although most police officers do their best to keep the public safe, there are times when cops employ excessive force, resulting in cruelty for the victims.

According to figures from the Bureau of Justice, police are responsible for around 5,000 fatalities worldwide (BJS, 2022). Although most of these incidents occurred in impoverished countries, police brutality is a global issue that impacts even industrialized countries (Haider, 2014). Other police brutality events have been recorded in Israel, Venezuela, Pakistan, and Canada, in addition to the 2014 shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri. According to available statistics, cops frequently use excessive force against criminals and even innocent people. The most depressing part is that most cops found guilty of cruelty received just minor disciplinary actions. In South Africa, for example, police brutality charges increased by 300 percent in 2012, yet only 1% of those allegations resulted in the officer being prosecuted; the rest were dismissed as unsubstantiated, and so could not be prosecuted in law courts (Haider, 2014).

Minority populations are the most vulnerable to police brutality (Acheme & Cionea, 2022). Minorities, such as African Americans, Hispanics, and Mexican nationals, are the most frequently targeted by the ruthless police force. According to a Harvard University report, police violence is more likely among African Americans and Hispanics than among other races. Furthermore, the data shows that police violence towards African Americans is not a new problem, but has existed for a long time (Nodjimbadem, 2017). According to the report, four out of every five males who were victims of police violence were from minority ethnicities. It is apparent that police officers have decided to blatantly enforce the present state of obvious prejudice rather than serve and protect the people as the police code of conduct requires (Acheme & Cionea, 2022). Another research found parallels between the contemporary state of police encounters with black people and unresolved historical injustices, although the reasoning lacks sufficient evidence to sustain the assertion (William, 2015). Furthermore, the same study discovered that the brutality rates were the same whether police encounter with the suspect took place in a high- or low-crime area. In fact, while dealing with African American and Hispanic criminals, 50% of police officers are more inclined to use force than when dealing with white suspects (William, 2015).

Some argue that the dominant group's long-held conviction in superiority has contributed to the devaluation of Black life, particularly in the United States (particularly among males), and so serves as a justification for law enforcement activities (Embrick, 2015). If entrenched systemic racism or the idea in White supremacy are not the root causes of the tumultuous interaction between police officers and Black males, more research is needed. When confronting African American individual, police officers appeared to use more excessive force than when confronting other groups. To gain knowledge and understanding of Black males' perception excessive and confrontational interactions with law enforcement officials, it is necessary to investigate not only historical underpinnings, but also White Privilege, police training procedures, the mental state of law enforcement officials during points of contact, and physiological variables that may impact the behaviors of law enforcers during a scenario in which Black males are viewed as violent threats.

Social Change Implication

Since the victims' families are also impacted by police brutality, it has a detrimental impact on the victims themselves. Victims of police brutality suffer from mental health concerns and, in some cases, death, which has an impact on their relatives (Brunson & Wade, 2019). Miller and Vittrup (2020) estimate that since 2015, police have killed over 1,000 individuals yearly, according to The Mapping Police Violence Project.

There is also a need to look at some of the causes of police brutality to decide whether it was severe. The decision to use police violence sprang from the necessity to find a way to cope with the criminal status of black people seeking retribution after enslavement. To deal with the situation, the only option was to make them flee in terror while also assisting them, or to arrest most of them. To label the link between police brutality and racism as racism is debatable, especially given that blacks may have a high crime rate, resulting in many of them being murdered or imprisoned.

Some of the police killings that have been labeled as horrific occurred during raids on criminals. The debate centers on police statements that they kill because they believe their lives are in danger (Kiang & Tsai, 2022). Due to a lack of proof, several courts have ruled in favor of police officers. However, the police who are expected to undertake investigations may be hampered by the lack of such evidence. It's fascinating to have evidence that connects cruelty to racial inequalities. To do so, you'll need to consider both sides of the argument (Johnson, 2022).

Unfortunately, when a criminal accuses the police of cruelty, they risk misusing their authority. Such instances will aid in identifying when a police officer is on the approach of committing outright police brutality (Johnson, 2022). However, some reported occurrences are overstated, focusing on cops who are labeled as cruel without considering their circumstances. Cruelty, on the other hand, has become all too simple to criticize and accuse at times. When someone fights arrest, for example, they may be injured in the process. Police officers are in a perfect position to make split-second choices when confronted with a criminal wielding a weapon. In such cases, the departments involved fail to handle the post-research in a manner that results in appropriate transparency (Johnson, 2022). Even when reasonable force is used, they may fail to file the required charges. The public is furious with the cops (Wihbey, & Kille, 2016).

When there was an increase in migration to the United States, so did police violence. The mix of people led in a great deal of prejudice and hate crimes (Taylor, 2021). There existed a barrier between the police, who were the law enforcers, and the public. In well-known cities, police violence resulted in cover-ups and apathy. The 1969 episode known as "the massacre of the black panther," in which a police crackdown led to the deaths of several individuals, is a case in point. African American organizations were blamed for promoting racial violence.

There were reports of harsh policing that went unpunished. This means that even though the bulk of the events involved white cops and black defendants, the police engaged were never held responsible for their actions (Kiang & Tsai, 2022). Following any act of cruelty, the public is always quite active in raising awareness; on occasion, they protest and even inflict destruction. As a result, they are ignored, and officers are never given an equivalent or acceptable sentence. This categorizes such brutality as a failure of the judicial system rather than a criminal crime The police officer has been known to turn off cameras during interactions (Kiang & Tsai, 2022). At such moments, they shatter the faith that has been placed in them. It is not difficult to discern because there is no sudden conflict in this circumstance. Journalists have uncovered several instances of police brutality. Police reporters have played an important role in raising public awareness of the issue. There are no laws prohibiting police aggression, and officers' mental problems are rarely treated (Kiang & Tsai, 2022).

Gaps in Literature

There has been little study done to see how police violence impacts the victims' family and how they are affected. According to Miller and Vittrup (2020) research, persons who are directly affected by police brutality die or suffer bodily and mental harm. According to Miller and Vittrup, high-profile acts of police aggression have a profound impact on communities. It may be terrible for family members and friends to witness their loved one being harmed or killed by the police under unexpected and inexplicable circumstances (Miller & Vittrup, 2020).

Several studies have been published that focus on the outcomes of police brutality research. The research focused on citizen complaints against police (Ariel et.al, 2017, White et.al, 2017, Braga et.al, 2017), police officers use of force (Jennings et.al, 2017, Henstock & Ariel, 2017) officer decisions to apprehend or issue citation (Headley et.al, 2017, Braga et.al, 2017) and police officer attitudes towards body wearable cameras. The results of these investigations were varied, with some claiming that body worn cameras reduced the use of force in specific experiments. However, officers indicate that cameras do not improve transparency, accountability, reduce public complaints, or reduce officer use of force, leading to an increase in incidences of police brutality, according to Headley et al, (2017). For example, the murder of George Floyd by a police officer in Minneapolis, Minnesota, was the most recent incident. The incident triggered "Black Lives Matter" protests throughout the world, with the goal of addressing concerns of police brutality.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to look at how police violence affects victims' families. Its goal is to establish a link between police brutality and the economic, psychological, and emotional consequences for victims' families (Miller & Vittrup, 2020). The study will investigate how families of victims of police violence dealt with seeing their loved ones hurt or murdered by cops. The study will add to the corpus of knowledge about the impact of police violence on victims' families' mental, social, psychological, and emotional well-being. Police Brutality is unmistakably defined as the use of extreme physical violence. However, as others have pointed out, cruelty extends beyond physical violence. The victims' family are subjected to emotional and sexual abuse, as well as verbal attack and psychological intimidation (Johnson, 2022).

Research Questions

i) What are the reasons that lead to police to use excessive force?

ii) How has the family experience impacted their perception of the police?

iii) How does race play a critical role in police brutality?

iv) Which alternative nonviolent mechanism can be adopted by police to minimize the effects of police brutality to families in different communities?

Relevance of the Study

The findings of this research fill a vacuum in the current literature on police brutality by concentrating on the impact on victims' families rather than racial profiling, which has been the subject of several earlier studies. The study will augment current but limited studies on the consequences of police violence on victims' relatives. There is already a body of knowledge about the difficulties that impact the families of victims of police brutality, and my study wants to add to it. My research will give criminal justice practitioners with information on how police violence impacts victims' relatives and the community. In study studies, victims of police abuse have been frequently distracted, labeled, and even harmed (Najdowski, Bottoms, & Goff, 2015).

The significance of this research aligns with the problem statement because of the alarming rate with which incidents of police brutality continue to increase poses a great population health risk, and stakeholders in the criminal justice system must be made aware of its dangers so that they can work on ways to reduce it and punish perpetrators (Miller & Vittrup, 2020). The findings of this research can be used to present evidence of how police brutality is affecting families and offer insight to the society on the proper measures that are put in place to protect people from police violence.

The main issue with police brutality is that the officers who are meant to protect people are the ones who murder most of them! Finally, they got away with no repercussions. Police brutality is directed towards specific races. Hudson's experience in St. Louis was that of a gangster in an area where officers referred to everyone of color as a thug. Because of their color, even bystanders became victims (Hudson, 2014). Cops, on the other hand, were cursed at first sight and are prone to disappointment. Cops may respond to minor infractions while tracing a black lady and other brown males. Others, however, do not fit into this category and do not agree of how the other corrupt officials behave themselves. Their ruthlessness is fueled by the knowledge that if they are captured, their friends would be the ones to question them.

There are a substantial number of police personnel that would purposefully violate human rights leading to unnecessary arrests (Hudson, 2014). Some police officers do not handle mental health issues effectively. They end up physically breaking such persons to transfer them to a hospital for treatment. The racial split reveals statistical inequalities. According to research conducted in Cincinnati, most policemen implicated in allegations of police violence were white (Suresh, 2014). As a result of these studies, a perception has emerged that white male cops are the harshest, based on the number of black males killed by police officers. Black cops also carry a harsh anti-black racial prejudice which shows how the law enforcement does not prejudice against any race when it comes to the use of excessive force.

Background

Many prosecutions involving cops and black women have ended in mistrials (Wihbey & Kille, 2016). Police work has been proposed as a solution to such problems, but given the complexity of law enforcement tasks, it is unlikely to succeed. Only a few occasions have police officers used fatal force in moments of extreme stress. According to a Bureau of Justice Statistics study, police violence was the main cause of death in police detention cells. Police training has been blamed for the emergence of police violence. According to a Philadelphia report, there were 394 instances of excessive police force. This research article revealed a need in policy training on deadly force policy.

Records of the number of police officers murdered in shootings each year are not always published which is debatable truth relating to the number of individuals who die because of police brutality. As a result, analyzing one side of these incidents is unfair, because police officers are also assaulted. Even though the number of persons murdered in police shootings is unknown, Harden claims that at least five black males are killed every month while they are unarmed (Harden, 2017). The study concludes that police violence against black people is on the rise.

Another flaw that contributes to law enforcement officials engaging in violence is their tendency to approach unavoidable disputes with a sense of superiority. They use the power of their weapons and believe that they are representing the state. The feelings of being professionals with an army at their disposal cause them to act erratically. The truth is that their firearms are liabilities, and they must protect them from suspicion. Those who are disadvantaged by intervening in new terrain situations, within someone's area, and spectators who are not always on their side. Most of the scenarios are dangerous; they have a fear of impending danger in numerous settings (David, 2014). Ethnic minorities, who have been victims of police brutality, either directly or indirectly, may have nightmares, flashbacks, or attempt to avoid interaction with police officers (running from police, etc.). They may also maintain a psychological state of high surveillance, on shield against the potential of abuse at the hands of law enforcement (Bryant-Davis et.al, 2017).

Police brutality is a matter of those in power vs. those who need their peace, and it is a problem that many people face daily. Surprisingly, just around half of all people are i

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