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Hint: The answer is mentioned in th

Question 21

Match the lava viscosity with the type of basaltic rock that it forms.

Watch A’A form here:

Watch Pahoehoe form here:

Watch the thin skin of rock on a lava lake form here:

Hint: This is mentioned by Kyle in the Kilauea talk!

High viscosity —— ______________

Medium Viscosity —— ______________

Low Viscosity —— ______________

( Answer option: Thin skin of rock on a lava lake, Pahoehoe, Volcanic pumice, A’A )

Question 22

True or False?

This 2018 eruption of Kilauea was the first historical caldera collapse ever witnessed by modern cultures.

Hint: the answer is in the Kilauea story told by Kyle.

Select one:



Question 23

When calderas like the one at the top of Kilauea collapse, they form cracks like faults around the region.

Here’s a lovely drone video showing some examples:

Kyle Anderson talks about Kilauea caldera sinking or subsidence. He mentioned that the cracks are normal faults inside the caldera. He shows a video of one growing. In this class, we’ve discussed normal faults.

Choose the principle force in effect that causes normal faults:

Hint: this is the same as for tectonic faults!

Select one:

a. Compression

b. Tension

c. Shear

d. All of these

Question 24

Kyle shows a histogram that directly correlates earthquakes that happened with deformation at Kilauea.

What did the mid June swarms of earthquakes at Kilauea record specifically?

Select one:

a. Subsidence of rock over a dropping magma reservoir

b. Periodic inflation of the magma reservoir and related ground tilt

Question 25

Based on the record of individual earthquakes throughout this eruption, which process is associated with more earthquakes?

Hint: The answer is shown in the K?lauea talk!

Select one:

a. Magma inflation or bulging of the caldera surface

b. Caldera collapse or subsidence

Question 26

How many people died in the 2018 eruption of Kilauea?

Select one:

a. 700

b. 7

c. 70

d. Zero

Question 27

Which very young geographic feature will look like Kilauea in the most distant future, a few million years from now?

Select one:

a. Kauai

b. Maui

c. Mauna Loa

d. Lo’ihi

e. Mauna Kea

f. O’ahu

Question 28

The map view of Idaho and Wyoming below shows the relative ages in millions of years of volcanic centers (including Yellowstone and the older Snake River Plain).

Based on these relative ages, in which direction has the North American tectonic plate been moving over the hotspot during the past 14 million years?

Hint: the top of the map is north, the bottom is south, the left side is west, and the right side is east. The active Yellowstone caldera in Wyoming is labeled the Yellowstone Plateau VF.

Select one:

a. Southeast

b. Northwest

c. Southwest

d. Northeast

Question 29

Why do researchers of Yellowstone caldera think a super eruption (1000 cubic kilometers or more of material) is very unlikely? (A smaller eruption is still possible and more likely, because the volcano is active!)

Hint: The answer is mentioned in the Yellowstone talk!

Select one:

a. There is relatively little magma in the chamber (10-15%)

b. Observed earthquakes are relatively small (< M 4.5) c. Emissions of volcanic gases are relatively low d. There are little to no steam explosions associated with seismicity

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