Chat with us, powered by LiveChat I'd like you to think through the question, When does adolescence end?? Note that there are no right? or wrong? answers, but you will be expected to explain your response. You mi - Writeedu

I’d like you to think through the question, When does adolescence end?? Note that there are no right? or wrong? answers, but you will be expected to explain your response. You mi

I'd like you to think through the question, “When does adolescence end?” Note that there are no “right” or “wrong” answers, but you will be expected to explain your response.

  • You might consider specific milestones that adolescents reach (school, being legal for various activities, etc)
  • Maybe different aspects of independence signal an end of adolescence for you
  • Or, maybe you want to consider physical development with regard to the body or brain.

After identifying what you believe is the "end" of adolescence and thoroughly explaining your answer, I want you to consider the implications of your answer on a developing adolescent. Specifically, if that milestone is the end – then it comes with some expectations or changes for this person, right? Consider what was expected of you when you became an "adult". Do you feel like you had reached the end of adolescence? Was your development considered when you were put into various adult positions in life? Why or why not?

Adolescence: Body and Mind

chapter nine

Invitation to the Life Span

Kathleen Stassen Berger | Fourth edition


Puberty (part 1)

Average ages and changes

Time between the first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development; begins between ages 8 and 14

Characterized by rapid physical growth and sexual maturation

Do They See Beauty?

Both young women—the Mexican 15-year-old preparing for her Quinceanera and the Malaysian teen applying a rice facial mask—look wistful, even worried. They are typical of teenage girls everywhere, who do not realize how lovely they are.

Puberty refers to the years of rapid physical growth and sexual maturation that end childhood, producing a person of adult size, shape, and sexuality.


Puberty (part 2)


Hypothalamus signals pituitary  to send hormones to the adrenals  to enlarge the gonads  that produce a rush of sex hormones.

Entire body and brain are transformed by puberty.

Puberty (part 3)


Observable changes in girls

Nipple growth and a few pubic hairs

Increases in height while fat, especially at the breast and hips, accumulates

First menstrual period ( menarche ) is followed by more growth.

Body growth complete by four years after it began; brain growth complete by the mid-20s

Usual growth sequence for boys is growth of the testes, initial pubic hair growth, growth of the penis, first ejaculation of seminal fluid (spermarche), appearance of facial hair, a peak growth spurt, deepening of the voice, and final pubic hair growth (Biro et al., 2001; Herman-Giddens et al., 2012; Susman et al., 2010). Final height is reached by age 20.


Puberty (part 4)


Observable changes in boys

Usual growth sequence is growth of the testes, initial pubic hair growth

Growth of the penis, first ejaculation of seminal fluid (spermarche), appearance of facial hair

Peak growth spurt, deepening of the voice, and final pubic hair growth

Final height by age 20


Puberty (part 5)

Psychological effects

Hormones instigate attraction and precipitate emotions.

Genes and earlier experiences interact with hormones.

More moodiness and psychopathy at extremes

Boys: Schizophrenia

Girls: Severe depression

Sexual thoughts can cause physiological and neurological processes, not just result from them

Puberty (part 6)

Brain development

Limbic system (fear, emotional impulses) matures before the prefrontal cortex (planning ahead, emotional regulation).

Prefrontal cortex limited in connections and engagement and may be overwhelmed with impulses.

Pubertal hormones directly affect amygdala

Puberty (part 7)

Same people but not the same brain.

These brain scans are part of a longitudinal study that repeatedly compared the proportion of gray matter from childhood through adolescence.

Gray matter is reduced as white matter increases, in part because pruning during the teen years (the last two pairs of images here) allows intellectual connections to build.


Puberty (part 8)

Body rhythms

Day-night cycle of biological activity occurs approximately every 24 hours (circadian means “about a day”).

Genetics influence the tendency toward evening or morning alertness.

Biology (circadian rhythms) and culture (parties and technology) work to make teenagers increasingly sleep-deprived with each year of high school.

Blue spectrum light from electronics have strong effect on the circadian system.

Sleep deprivation and irregular sleep schedules increase the risk of insomnia, nightmares, mood disorders (depression, conduct disorder, anxiety), and falling asleep while driving.


Puberty (part 9)


Three of every four high school seniors are sleep deprived. Even if they go to sleep at midnight, as many do, they must get up before 8 A.M. as almost all do. Then, all day they are tired.


Inside the Brain

Impulses, rewards, and reflection

Hormones, especially testosterone, fuel emotional impulses.

Heightened arousal occurs in and influences the brain’s reward center, especially risk-taking.

Social approval is crucial and rejection from peers is especially painful.

Puberty (part 10)

Losing Is Winning

In this game, risk-taking led to more crashes and fewer points. As you see, adolescents were strongly influenced by the presence of peers, so much so that they lost points that they would have kept if they had played alone. In fact, sometimes they laughed when they crashed instead of bemoaning their loss.

Note the contrast with emerging adults, who were more likely to take risks when alone.


Puberty (part 11)

Early or late?

Puberty begins between ages 8 and 14.

Influence of genes, gender, weight, hormones, and stress interact.

Onset stress matters less when friends mature at similar rates.

Leptin, a hormone that is naturally produced by the human body, definitely affects puberty onset in girls. Low leptin is a problem, as this hormone is essential for appetite, energy, and puberty. However, too much leptin correlates with obesity, early puberty, and then early termination of growth.


Growth, Nutrition, and Sex

Growing bigger and stronger

Each body part increases in size on a schedule.

Growth proceeds from extremities to the core.

Height spurt follows the weight spurt and then a muscle spurt occurs; these spurts precede increases in bone mass (fracture vulnerability).

Skin becomes oiler, sweatier, and more acne prone, and hair grows under arms, on faces, and over sex organs.

Growth, Nutrition, and Sex (part 1)


The body, brain, and behavior always interact.

Sexual thoughts themselves can cause physiological and neurological processes, not just result from them.

Rising cortisol levels at puberty increase the likelihood of anger or frustration.

Emotions then increase hormones.

Growth, Nutrition, and Sex (part 2)

Diet deficiencies

Many adolescents have unhealthy diets.

Deficiencies of iron, calcium, zinc, and other minerals

Iron depletion from menstruation, intensive physical labors or sports

Nudge toward poor dietary choices from peers and environment

Growth, Nutrition, and Sex (part 3)

Body image

Eating choices and patterns are often influenced by perceptions of negative body image.

Two-thirds of U.S. high school girls are trying to lose weight; one-third think they are overweight (actual incidence is one-sixth).

Depression peaks around age 14; it decreases for many with prefrontal cortex maturation.

Growth, Nutrition, and Sex (part 4)

Eating disorders

Erratic eating, drug ingestion

Girls: Diet pills

Boys: Steroids

Common types

Anorexia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa

Binge eating disorder

Growth, Nutrition, and Sex (part 5)

Sexual maturation

Sexuality is multidimensional, complicated, and variable.

Primary sex characteristics

Parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction, including the uterus, ovaries, testicles, and penis

Secondary sex characteristics

Observable physical traits that are not directly involved in reproduction but that indicate sexual maturity

Growth, Nutrition, and Sex (part 6)

Sexual maturation and psychological impact

Biology causes all sex characteristics, but psychology determines their impact.

Sex hormones affect the brain and many culturally influenced thoughts and behaviors reflect an increased understanding of sexuality.

Masturbation is common for both sexes.

Growth, Nutrition, and Sex (part 7)

Sexual maturation and sexual intercourse

Finnish researchers found sexually experienced 13-year-olds were more depressed, rebellious, and drug abusing; trend reversed at age 19

Sexual activity of friends is one of best predictors of sexual activity of adolescent

Every gender, ethnic, and age group has become less active than the previous cohort.

Growth, Nutrition, and Sex (part 8)

Sexual problems in adolescence

Positive trends

Decreased teen births

Increased use of protection

Decreased teen abortion


Earlier puberty and sex before age 15

Unmarried, single teen mothers

Grandmother support limited or not available


Growth, Nutrition, and Sex (part 9)

Sexual abuse

Defined as any sexual activity (including fondling and photographing) between a juvenile and an adult

Linked to wide host of subsequent problems

Most frequently affects adolescents

Forced marriage; sex trafficking

Cognitive Development (part 1)

Adolescent egocentrism

Thinking that leads young people (ages 10 to 13) to focus on self to exclusion of others


Imaginary audience

Belief that others are watching and taking note of appearance, ideas, and behaviors; creates self-consciousness

Acute self-consciousness


Cognitive Development (part 2)

Personal fable

Characterized by an adolescent’s belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, and experiences are more wonderful or awful than others

Invincibility fable

Characterized by conviction that or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sex or high-speed driving


Cognitive Development (part 3)

Formal operational thought: Piaget

Characterized by more systematic logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas

Math: Ability to multiply unread numbers

Social studies: Ability to consider global effects and problems

Science: Ability to study invisible particles and distant galaxies

Cognitive Development (part 4)

Piaget’s balance-scale test of formal reasoning, as it is attempted by a (a) 4-year-old, (b) 7-year-old, (c) 10-year-old, and (d) 14-year-old. The key to balancing the scale is to make weight times distance from the center equal on both sides of the center; the realization of that principle requires formal operational thought.


Cognitive Development (part 5)

One hallmark of formal operational thought is the capacity to think of possibility, not just reality.

Hypothetical thought

Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality

Deductive reasoning

Reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out (deduce) specifics

Sometimes called top-down reasoning

Inductive reasoning

Reasoning from one or more specific experiences or facts to a general conclusion; may be less cognitively advanced than deduction

Sometimes called bottom-up reasoning

Cognitive Development (part 6)

Dual processing

Two networks exist within the human brain

One for intuitive emotional responses

One for analytical reasoning

Impressive Connections

This robot is about to compete in the Robotics Competition in Atlanta, Georgia, but much more impressive are the brains of the Oregon high school team (including Melissa, shown here) who designed the robot.


Cognitive Development (part 7)

Adolescents are more likely to be intuitive thinkers because of uneven brain maturation.

Parents and teachers prefer slower, analytic thinking.

Emotional conclusions and intuition are more comforting.

With age, adolescents become more logical, less overtly optimistic, and less fatalistic.

Cognitive Development (part 8)

Social context, experience, and training in statistics and linguistics that emphasize logic become major influences on adolescent cognition.

Cognitive Development (part 9)

Does adolescent thinking have merit?

Teenage irrationality and impulsivity may be blamed on different priorities rather than a way of thinking.

Hormones and brains are less attuned to long-term consequences.

Different values may be at play.

Lust for excitement, responsiveness to peers, and willingness to explore new ideas may be adaptive in some contexts.

What do you think?

A Case to Study: Biting the Policeman

After reading the case on page 334 of your text, answer the following:

How did the adolescent’s brain development contribute to her action and reaction to the police officer?

In what way is this an example of dual processing?

What role did the adolescent’s previous childhood experiences play in her reaction to the police officer?

Secondary Education (part 1)

Student emotional and academic engagement from fifth grade to eighth grade:

Overall average was a slow and steady decline of engagement

About 18 percent were highly engaged

About 5 percent experienced precipitous disengagement year by year

A study of student emotional and academic engagement from fifth grade to eighth grade found that, as expected, the overall average was a slow and steady decline of engagement, but a distinctive group (about 18 percent) were highly engaged throughout while another distinctive group (about 5 percent) experienced precipitous disengagement year by year (Li & Lerner, 2011).

The 18 percent group are likely to do well in high school; the 5 percent group are likely to drop out, but some of them are late bloomers who could succeed in college if given time and encouragement. Thus, schools and teachers need many strategies to reach every adolescent. Various scientists, nations, schools, and teachers advocate many reforms, based on opposite but logical hypotheses.


Secondary Education (part 2)

Secondary education

Period after primary education (elementary or grade school) and before tertiary education (college)

Usually occurs from about age 11 to age 18, although the age range varies somewhat by school and by nation

Compulsory education until at least age 12 almost everywhere, and new high schools and colleges open daily in developing nations


Secondary Education (part 3)

Middle school

School for children after elementary school and before high school, usually grades 6 through 8

Academic achievement slows down and behavioral problems increase

Increased bullying

Less protective parenting

Declining achievement, especially young adolescents of ethnic minorities

Complicated friendships

Challenging academic excellence recognition

Academic achievement slows down, and behavioral problems increase.


Secondary Education (part 4)

Coping with middle school

Quit trying

Fixed versus growth mindset

Problems related to increased technology

Opposing Perspectives: Digital Natives

Is technology a blessing or a curse?

Technology provides such things as tools for learning and medical monitoring.

It also may facilitate cyberbullying, sexting, online harassment or predation, or Internet addiction.

Internet addiction almost always occurs with other disorders.

A View from Science Computer Use as a Symptom

Psychoanalytic theory: Mental health problems arise from deep conflicts, and thus Internet use is a symptom—not the problem.

Behaviorism: Behavior itself may be the problem.

Evolutionary theory: An enduring need to connect drives behavior.

Secondary Education (part 5)

High school

Many of the patterns and problems of middle school initially continue in high school.

After maturation reduces sudden growth and sexual impulses of puberty, adolescents are better able to cope with school.

By the end of the high school years, most adolescents are increasingly able to think abstractly, analytically, hypothetically, and logically, as well as subjectively, emotionally, intuitively, and experientially.

Secondary Education (part 6)

College bound

In theory and sometimes in practice, high schools promote students’ analytic ability.

In the United States, an increasing number of high school students are enrolled in classes that are designed to be more rigorous and that require them to pass externally scored exams.

AP and IB

In 2016, AP classes were taken by about one-third of all high school graduates, compared to less than one-fifth (19 percent) in 2003.


Secondary Education (part 7)

High-stakes test

Evaluation that is critical in determining success or failure

Determines if a student will graduate or be promoted

High school graduation rates increased every year in the past decade.

In 2016, 83.2 percent of U.S. high school students graduated.

Many East Asian nations have begun to phase out high-stakes tests; local autonomy is increasing.


Secondary Education (part 8)

Mostly Good News

This depicts improvements in high school graduation rates, especially among Hispanic youth, who drop out only half as often as they did 20 years ago. However, since high school graduation is increasingly necessary for lifetime success, current rates still lag behind the vocational demands. Future health, income, and happiness for anyone who does not complete high school are in jeopardy.


Secondary Education (part 9)

Alternatives to college

One-third of U.S. high school graduates do not enter college (wide range).

About three-fourths who enter community colleges do not complete AA degree in three years.

Only 37 percent of U.S. young adults have a B.S. degree.

High school graduates are unprepared for jobs.


Measuring Practical Cognition

Measuring practical cognition

PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)

International test taken by 15-year-olds in 50 nations that is designed to measure problem-solving and cognition in daily life

U.S. students performed lower on the PISA compared to many other nations (in the 2012 assessments).

The PISA and international comparisons of high-school dropout rates suggest that U.S. secondary education can be improved, especially for those who do not go to college.

PIRLS and TIMSS covered earlier



Adolescence: Psychosocial Development

chapter ten

Invitation to the Life Span

Kathleen Stassen Berger | Fourth edition


Identity (part 1)

Adolescent psychosocial development is a search for a consistent understanding of oneself.

Self-expression and self-concept become increasingly important at puberty.

Each young person wants to know, “Who am I?”

These are high school students in Junior ROTC training camp. For many youths who cannot afford college, the military offers a temporary identity, complete with haircut, uniform, and comrades.


Identity (part 2)

Not yet achieved

Duration of adolescence lengthened and identity achievement more complex

Identity versus role confusion

Erikson’s term for the fifth stage of development, in which the person tries to figure out “Who am I?” but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt


Consistent definition of one’s self as a unique individual, in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations

Identity achievement

Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual, in accord with past experiences and future plans

Identity (part 3)

Role confusion (identity diffusion)

Situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is


Erikson’s term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values wholesale, without questioning or analysis


An adolescent’s choice of a socially acceptable way to postpone making identity-achievement decisions (Going to college is a common example.)

Identity (part 4)

Erikson (1968/1994) highlighted aspects of identity

Religious identity

Political identity/ethnic identity

Vocational identity

Sexual identity/gender identity/cisgender

Same Situation, Far Apart: Religious Identity Awesome devotion is characteristic of adolescents, whether devotion is to a sport, a person, a music group, or—as shown here—a religion. This boy (left) praying on a Kosovo street is part of a dangerous protest against the town’s refusal to allow building another mosque. This girl (right) is at a stadium rally for young Christians in Michigan, declaring her faith for all to see. While adults see differences between the two religions, both teens share not only piety but also twenty-first-century clothing. Her T-shirt is a recent innovation, and on his jersey is Messi 10, for a soccer star born in Argentina.

Religious identity: Influenced by parents and community

Political identity: Influenced by parents and culture

Gender identity: A person’s acceptance of the roles and behaviors that society associates with the biological categories of male and female

Vocational identity: Early vocational identity is no longer appropriate

Teenage employment can interfere with school.

It takes years to acquire the skills needed for many careers.

Sexual orientation: A term that refers to whether a person is sexually and romantically attracted to others of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both sexes


Identity (part 5)

Identity and depression

Search for identity creates vulnerability to depression and anxiety

Fluidity and uncertainty about sex and gender common during early adolescence, especially for transgender, gay, or lesbian adolescents

Gender dysphoria (DSM-5) describes distress at biological gender

Close Relationships (part 1)

Family conflict

Parent–adolescent conflict typically peaks in early adolescence and is more a sign of attachment than of distance.


Bickering involves petty, peevish arguing, usually repeated and ongoing, about every day concerns.

Avoidance of extremes

Avoiding extremes of strictness or leniency provides best support while teens adapt to increased autonomy.

A View from Science Teenagers, Genes, and Parents

Risk score was one point for each of the following: had drunk alcohol, had smoked marijuana, had had sex.

As shown, most of the 11-year-olds had done none of these. By age 14, most had done one (usually had drunk beer or wine)—except for those at genetic risk who did not have the seven-session training.

For those at genetic risk, the special program made a decided difference.

A major challenge for developmentalists is to combine direct and practical programs that benefit adolescents with laboratory analysis of molecular genetics. Some of them had done all three, and many had done at least two. As you see, for those youths without genetic risk, the usual parenting was no better or worse than the parenting that benefited from the special classes: The average 14-year-old in either group had tried only one risky behavior. But for those at genetic risk, the special program made a decided difference.


Close Relationships (part 2)

Four aspects of family closeness

Communication: Do parents and teens talk openly with one another?

Support: Do they rely on one another?

Connectedness: How emotionally close are they?

Control: Do parents encourage or limit adolescent independence?

Emotional dependency

Adolescents are more dependent on their parents if they are female and/or from a minority ethnic group.

This can be either repressive or healthy, depending on the culture and the specific circumstances.


Close Relationships (part 3)

Parental monitoring: Parents’ ongoing awareness of what their children are doing, where, and with whom

Positive: Part of a warm, supportive relationship

Negative: Overly restrictive and controlling

Worst: Psychological when parents make a child feel guilty and impose gratefulness by threatening to withdraw love and support

Close Relationships (part 4)

Cultural expectations for parents of teenagers

Across cultures, parent–child communication and encouragement reduce teenage depression, suicide, and low self-esteem while increasing aspirations and achievements.

Expectations, interactions, and behavior vary by and within cultures and within U.S. ethnic groups.

Familism versus adolescent autonomy

Supportive family environment

Close Relationships (part 5)

Peers and parents

Peers do not negate need for parental support

Healthy parent-adolescent relationships enhance later peer friendships and more reciprocal romances

Parenting buffering of stress is less effective in adolescence

Close Relationships (part 6)

Peer pressure

Provides encouragement to conform to one’s friends in behavior, dress, and attitude

Is usually considered a negative force, as when adolescent peers encourage one another to defy adult authority

Can also be positive influence of either gender

Close Relationships (part 7)

Adolescents use social media to strengthen existing friendships.

92 percent of 13- to 17-year-olds go online daily; 24 percent are online almost constantly.

Internet may provide support for non-normative adolescents.

Close Relationships (part 8)

Immediacy of peers

Peers nearby at moment are most influential

Deviancy training

Destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or resist social norms

Close Relationships (part 9)

Selection and facilitation are evident lifelong, but the balance between the two shifts.


Teenagers select friends whose values and interests they share, abandoning friends who follow other paths


Peers facilitate both destructive and constructive behaviors in one another

Makes it easier to do both the wrong thing and the right thing

Helps individuals do things that they would be unlikely to do on their own

Close Relationships (part 10)

Romantic partners

Influence each other on a wide variety of things

Typically first occur in high school; selection fluidity and rapidity mitigate against permanency

Peer support help coping; perception of peer sexual activity influential

Close Relationships (part 11)

Many Virgins

For 30 years, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey has asked high school students from all over the United States dozens of confidential questions about their behavior. As you can see, about one-fourth of all students have already had sex by the ninth grade, and more than one-third have not yet had sex by their senior year—a group whose ranks have been increasing in recent years. Other research finds that sexual behaviors are influenced by peers, with some groups all sexually experienced by age 14 and others not until age 18 or older.


Close Relationships (part 12)


Includes sending explicit message or picture via cell phone

Involves norms that vary from group to group; school to school; city to city; and nation to nation

Increases sexual experiences; oral sex (seven times more likely); sex without condom (five times more likely)

May encourage revenge porn

Not considered pornography by many teens

Close Relationships (part 13)

Same-sex romance

Some cultures accept and others criminalize youth who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender.

Parental and peer support help, but there is a higher risk of depression and anxiety.

Sexual orientation is fluid during adolescence.

Sexual orientation can be strong, weak, overt, secret, or unconscious.


Close Relationships (part 14)

Sexual orientation

Person’s sexual and romantic attraction to others of the same sex, the other sex, or both sexes

Fluid during teen years

Culture and cohort are powerful influence



Young and Old

Everyone knows that attitudes about same-sex relationships are changing. Less well-known is that cohort differences are greater than the shift over the first decade of the twenty-first century.

Those most at risk of sexual violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were those who had partners of both sexes.


Close Relationships (part 15)

Learning about sex

From media

Internet provi

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