Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Chao, G. T. (2018). Unpacking team process dynamics and emergent phenomena: - Writeedu

Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Chao, G. T. (2018). Unpacking team process dynamics and emergent phenomena:

Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Chao, G. T. (2018). Unpacking team process dynamics and emergent phenomena: Challenges, conceptual advances, and innovative methods. American Psychologist, 73(4), 576–592.











Reference Material








Click here to access the Unit II Hiring video.

Click here to access the transcript for the Unit II Hiring video.


Black, J. S., & Gregersen, H. B. (2000). High impact training: Forging leaders for the global frontier. Human Resource Management, 39(2/3), 173–184. Retrieved from t=true&db=bth&AN=13643804&site=ehost-live&scope=site


ClickView/VEA (Producer). (2012). Employment Relations: Role of Managers (Segment 2 of 5) [Video file].

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The transcript for this video can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the Films on Demand database.















Click here to access a transcript for this video.


Gonzalez-Morales, M. G., Kernan, M. C., Becker, T. E., & Eisenberger, R. (2018). Defeating abusive supervision: Training supervisors to support subordinates. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 23(2), 151–162. Retrieved from t=true&db=pdh&AN=2016-59629-001&site=ehost-live&scope=site


Master Source (Producer). (1994). Managing a diverse workplace (Segment 10 of 16) [Video file]. Retrieved from ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=4265&loid=11915


The transcript for this video can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the Films on Demand database.


Window to the World Communications (Producer). (2001). Recruitment and retention (Segment 10 of 15) [Video file]. Retrieved from ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=30245&loid=9944


The transcript for this video can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the Films on Demand database.



Unit Lesson

Hiring Practices and Considerations


Previously, we discussed the significance of understanding different styles of leadership and how each can be applied to work with a diverse group of employees. Knowing the specifics associated with the differing styles can help members of an organization better grasp why certain leaders choose to lead a particular way. In this unit, we will discuss how leaders opt to choose the right people for a job and how they determine the correct method for working with others in a supervisory fashion.


Click here to access the Unit II Hiring video.

Click here to access the transcript for the Unit II Hiring video.


Being a leader in an organization demands being wise in decision-making, keen on connecting with others, and intuitive in knowing who is needed to fill specific roles and how those members will be successful in working with others who are already a part of a team. Transformational leaders, as mentioned previously, develop a clear vision for their followers to reach specific organizational goals. They strive to obtain group cohesiveness and unity while serving as an influential role model for followers. Regardless of the style portrayed by leaders, various traits often differentiate effective leaders from others, such as being self-confident, trustworthy, creative, flexible, and driven (Greenberg, 2011). These characteristics

are thought to set successful leaders apart from others who are tasked with an administrative role.

Finding the right person

(Embe2006, n.d.)



CNBC LLC (Producer). (2010). Leaders, developed or born? (Segment 5 of 19) [Video file]. Retrieved from







expand a team? Finding the right person for a job is sometimes similar to seeking the right shoe for an outfit. Not only does the shoe need to match the selected wardrobe, it should also fit comfortably. When individuals are hired quickly and are not a good fit for an organization, there seems to be a great deal of animosity and unfortunate turnover. An organization’s culture consists of its attitude, values, behavioral norms, and company expectations of members. Hiring the right people to work together cohesively is like growing the roots of a tree. Each member is connected in a sense to the overall structure and grounded in the same mission and commitment to serve. On the other hand, when people are hired who do not easily conform or connect with members of a specific organization, they tend to fall behind in performance standards and freely express their unhappiness.


Wise leaders know you cannot always trust your instincts and just go with your gut. One smart consideration is to educate the selection team or hiring managers of a business. Interviewers and recruiters should be able to identify the qualities, characteristics, and behaviors that are portrayed in each candidate to determine if he or she would be a good fit. Companies should not necessarily seek people who are thought to appear as a clone to all other members. Sharing the same values and skillsets can be a plus, but members should still be unique within themselves. In addition, nicely crafted interview questions can serve as a profitable tool to aid in determining if candidates are active in the community, experienced and interested in working with teams, and/or innovative in thinking (Dixon, 2018).


Leading Groups and Teams


The biggest difference between leading groups and leading teams is that supervisors/leaders often tell groups what to do and then take all the credit. However, when leading teams, the leader actually asks members for their input, and there is a shared sense of responsibility. Strategic leaders of teams make the most of team differences and tend to offer respect and appreciation for differing points of view. They use the diversity within the team as an asset to reach and conquer strategic milestones. These insightful leaders not only recognize that change is inevitable, they are adaptive and resilient (Greenberg, 2011).


Motivating Individuals and Teams


According to Reijseger, Peeters, Taris, and Schaufeli (2017), motivating workers through work engagement is the best plan for a positive affective-cognitive work-related state of mind. Ultimately, when workers are more engaged with their work and their team members, they experience fewer health problems, less absenteeism, and lower turnover. Therefore, performances improve, and workers not only benefit from personal and professional accomplishments but the organization as a whole gains positive outcomes.






When seeking the right person for a job, is it important to consider the culture of an organization? Do personalities and attitudes matter, or do hiring managers simply look at education and credentials in order to



discover their own strengths, and then they focus on others’ capabilities. Once they know exactly what best motivates each person or each team, they use that as a tool to inspire and fuel enthusiasm to heighten engagement and optimal functioning.


Some organizational leaders believe in applying psychological science to improve selection, training, socialization, development, leadership, and motivation (Kozlowski & Chao, 2018). Within the last few decades, organizations around the world have been dealing with environments that are quickly becoming global in nature and complex in many respects. Collaborative work-based teams have been enhanced as a means to better approach issues that can be rectified with effective methods of problem-solving, innovation, and adaptability. By applying the right processes to resolve important demands, better outcomes will result. In addition to utilizing the right processes, wise leaders know how to motivate workers by encouraging leadership mentalities, offering reward systems, and allowing shared perceptions.


(Rawpixelimages, 2013)





Imagine that your job in a large shoe company was simply to stimulate creativity and teambuilding among various departments. As the project manager and company cheerleader, you have noticed in the last year that team morale and productivity has been slowly decreasing. After careful reflection, you realized that a particular new male, who was hired 14 months ago, is continuously complaining about the brands of shoes the company has been selling. You also noticed that he appears quite stagnant in his role each day. Being that he supervises a team of 12 people, you have been reluctant to give him advice on how to lead or portray his attitude and character. As you hear him making a statement to his team one day that the shoes are outdated and people would be crazy to purchase them, you know you need to confront him.


As a leader in the organization, is it actually your duty to confront him, to go above him, or to ignore the issue? Depending on your choice, how would the situation be resolved, or would it? Sometimes not confronting an issue can become a larger obstacle to tackle after more time passes. When confronting leaders about communication concerns, certain techniques may prove more appropriate than others. Should trainings related to commitment, respect for others, and professional communication be offered to all employees? Some supervisors might prefer to speak to groups about confrontational issues versus speaking directly to each individual. However, it is imperative that effective training results in the intended mastery of learning as a benefit to the organization as a whole. According to Greenberg (2011), the emotions we display can be contagious for others, and, consequently, happier people are more likely to remain with a job and perform better.


Highly motivated workers are more actively involved and energized. When workers have an open mind about receiving relevant information and a willingness to act, they complete more tasks at a higher level. They typically become more absorbed in their work and take pride in their accomplishments. Effective leaders first




some are actually nervous that their jobs will one day be taken over by technology. This is not a comfortable feeling, especially for those who have worked in the same field for a long time. With technological advancements and a push for innovative thinking, most workers today feel an uneasiness in regards to their job security. Innovation refers to changing the regular routine of procedures and making improvements. Therefore, bringing creative solutions to problems is valued by leadership if leaders are transformational and wish to excel in growth and development. Thinking creatively must come from not only the subordinates of a leader but also the leader himself or herself, regardless of time constraints (Gaul, 2016).


(Michamikhail, n.d.)



The United States unemployment rate is around 8%, yet employers are struggling to fill vacancies (Freifeld, 2013). Research indicates that there is a shortage of people skilled in math, science, technology,

and education in today’s industries. Does today’s technologically-advanced world require workers to be more experienced and credentialed in liberal arts and thinking skills? Is the real issue limited talent of workers or skills? What talents, trainings, characteristics, or skills do you think workers will need in order to advance in the work force within the next decade?


According to Fast Company Magazine’s article, “The World’s 50 Most Innovative Companies of 2018” (2018), Apple, Netflix, Square, Tencent, and Amazon are on top. The key to success for these companies is to sustain innovation. The first process of innovation entails setting the agenda. After doing this, one must set the stage and then produce quality ideas. Once the ideas are tested, then the outcome must be assessed.

Did you know the movie Star Wars was turned down by several Hollywood studios before finally being accepted (Lambie, 2012)? Those who have a will to succeed will find a way—as persistence and diligence is pivotal to succession in attaining individual, team, and organizational goals.





Dixon, L. (2018, May 1). Hire people who will augment, not just fit, company culture. Rochester Business Journal. Retrieved from 95108&sid=ITOF&xid=a9282648


Embe2006. (n.d.). Magnifying glass searching people (ID 52443614) [Graphic]. Retrieved from person-job-image52443614


Freifeld, L. (2013). Bridging the skills gap: Employers want certain skills. Employees don’t have them. Why? And what can organizations and training, employees, and the educational system do to eliminate the disconnect? Training, 50(2). Retrieved from t=true&db=edsbig&AN=edsbig.A327813862&site=eds-live&scope=site


Gaul, P. (2016). Talent development in the post-knowledge world: The future demands workers to be innovative and leaders to know how to measure those results. TD Magazine, 70(12), 46–51. Retrieved from t=true&db=edsbig&AN=edsbig.A473788029&site=eds-live&scope=site


Greenberg, J. (2011). Behavior in organizations (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.


Enhancing Organizational Performances

In today’s society, people are becoming more skilled and educated, yet



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Lambie, R. (2012). The hit films Hollywood studios didn’t want. Retrieved from


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Rawpixelimages. (2013). Team teamwork togetherness collaboration concept (ID 70782854) [Photograph].

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Reijseger, G., Peeters, M. C. W., Taris, T. W., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2017). From motivation to activation: Why engaged workers are better performers. Journal of Business & Psychology, 32(2), 117–130.

Retrieved from t=true&db=bsu&AN=121840992&site=ehost-live&scope=site


The world’s 50 most innovative companies of 2018. (2018). Fast Company. Retrieved from

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