Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Lab Report Format This Individual Lab Report format is required for all - Writeedu

Lab Report Format This Individual Lab Report format is required for all

Lab Report Format

This Individual Lab Report format is required for all (6 in total) required laboratory investigations. All reports must be typed and include raw data from the investigation.

The General Lab Reports must contain the following:

· Student/Lab Identification

· Results and Raw Data

· Graphs

· Data Summary

· References

Student/Lab Identification The student identification should contain the lab name, date, student name and instructor name. Title should be centered and bold at the top of the first page of text.

Results and Raw Data This section should include a table of all data collected during investigation. 

Graphs                                         Graphs are a tool, much as a calculator. They allow you to represent a lot of data in a very short space. Graphs allow you to analyze data in interesting ways, but graphs do not make an analysis. 

Data Summary The data summary section should 1) show an understanding of the data, and 2) offer an analysis of the data that draws conclusions from the data, including the available quantitative (that is, the numerical) information that is in the table.  It will also be essential that you communicate this clearly to the reader. This part of the lab will be graded on how well these tasks are completed.  You should be careful to use all the data that you have collected in this summary!   Before you can do this, presenting the data properly in a table is essential to complete the task of understanding the data and making something of it, so it is important that earlier task be done well.  Also, to understand the data, it may be necessary to spend a little time on the Internet to get a little background on any aspects that you are not familiar with.  So these are  important aspects of the lab – to show that you have been able to organize information (your set of data) and then extract meaning from it.





Example Lab Report

Use this format for all Lab Reports:

Result and Raw data

U.S. Energy Consumption by source, 2015













Natural gas






Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, Table 1.3, March 2016, preliminary data.



Data Summary

A variety of types of energy are utilized for U.S. energy consumption, as noted in the first column of the table.  There are two important observations that can be made from observing this table.  The first is that the energy sources can be grouped into two main groups, renewable and nonrenewable.   Renewable energy sources include biomass, hydropower, geothermal, wind, and solar.  Most of us are familiar with solar energy, harnessing wind energy, and creating dams to harness hydropower.  Biomass is energy derived from plants and plant-derived materials.  This is primarily burning wood but also includes burning other plant materials, extracting ethanol from corn and biodiesel from soybeans, utilizing methane gas from landfills, and utilizing municipal and industrial waste.  Biomass is renewable with the exception that clearing forests that cannot quickly be replaced not only results in a carbon penalty (generating more carbon than is absorbed, contributing to greenhouse emissions), but clearing forests on mountains can cause mudslides, burning wood causes pollution, and soil erosion (e.g. Haiti).  Geothermal energy makes use of heat from deep in the earth, and can also be utilized by building underground or earth-sheltered homes, pioneered by Malcolm Wells in the 1970s, as the temperature of the earth just underground remains fairly constant.  For the most part, when deployed with prudence, there are little risks associated with utilizing renewable energy sources, and benefits, including little impact on greenhouse gases, except as noted.

Non-renewable energy sources include petroleum, natural gas, coal, and uranium, all of which have to be mined or otherwise extracted from underground.  Risks are associated with obtaining all of these energy sources, including oil spills, earthquakes from hydraulic fracturing (fracking), altering stability of the local tectonics from both oil and gas drilling, safety and health risks to coal miners, pollution of water sources and cancers and death from exposure to radiation from uranium mining (which has been a serious issue on some American Indian reservations).  And when these energy sources are used, they cause significant pollution and contribution to greenhouse gases.

The second column of data dramatically shows the second important observation: our energy sources are almost exclusively from the non-renewable energy sources, in spite of the fact that the technology to obtain energy from renewable sources has existed for decades.  Specifically, the energy consumption by renewable sources totals 9.8%, while energy consumption by nonrenewables sources totals 89.8%.  Thus we can say that roughly 90% of our energy utilization is from non-renewable sources.



Helpful hints:

In the example, you may not have been familiar with geothermal or biomass, and if so, you should look up these terms.  Also, if you were not already aware of it, after some Internet research, you should become aware that energy consumption is related to issues such as managing limited global resources and contributing to greenhouse warming gases.  In the example, this is the first “light bulb” moment when you should understand how to categorize the data: you should realize it can be broken up into two subsets – into renewable and non-renewable energy sources.  Explicitly identify this in the data summary section.

Now in the example lab report, there was a column of numbers.  You need to make use of this too in order to complete the lab report.  This is an example of the quantitative data that you will be required to collect.  It is necessary for you to examine this data and discuss it in the data summary section.  What is the meaning of the data?  In this case, once you have figured out that energy sources fall into two categories, renewable and non-renewable, you should look at the numbers associated with each group separately.  When you do this, you see right away that the numbers are much larger for one group, non-renewable energy sources, than the other group, renewable energy sources.  This is a key point that you want to discuss explicitly and quantitatively.  And in this example, if we are using primarily non-renewable energy sources, what are the concerns associated with that?   If you have a lab where the data has a date and time, consider how this might be beneficial in sorting out the data.  Would it be useful to separate the data into daytime and nighttime?  Usually there will be at least one way you can group the data in order to gain some understanding about it. Now that you understand the data, you should consider what type of graph would best show the conclusions that you came to.  In this case, a pie graph is very useful for showing the relative quantities that are being used, and brings home the point that non-renewable energy sources are being used primarily in the U.S.  What could have made the graph better?  How about if one set of similar colors was used for non-renewable energy sources, and another set of colors for the renewable energy sources, in order to tell them apart more clearly on the graph? We use a pie chart to most effectively demonstrate this disparity.

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