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NR503 Population Health, Epidemiology, & Statistical Principles

Week 4 Midterm Exam

Endemic means that a disease:

A. Occurs clearly in excess of normal expectancy

B. Is habitually present in human populations

C. Affects a large number of countries simultaneously

D. Exhibits a seasonal pattern

E. Is prevalent among animals

Table who ate egg salad & who did not eat egg salad

Total number of persons who ate each specified combination of food items

Ate tuna Did not eat tuna

Ate egg salad 75 100

Did not eat egg salad 200 50

Total number of persons who ate each specified combination of food items & who later became sick (with acute sore throats)

Ate tuna Did not eat tuna

Ate egg salad 60 75

Did not eat egg salad 70 15

What is the sore throat attack rate in persons who ate both egg salad & tuna

a. 60/75

b. 70/200

c. 60/133

d. 60/275

e. None of the above

According to the results shown in the preceding tables, which of the following food items (or combination of food items) is most likely to be infective?

a. Tuna only

b. Egg salad only

c. Neither tuna nor egg salad

d. Both tuna & egg salad

e. Cannot be calculated from the data

In the study of an outbreak of an infectious disease, plotting an epidemic curve is useful because:

a. It helps to determine what type of an outbreak (e.g. single-source, person-to-person) has occurred

b. It shows whether herd immunity has occurred

c. It helps to determine the median incubation period

d. A & c

e. A,b, & c

Which of the following is characteristic of a single-exposure, common-vehicle outbreak?

a. Frequent secondary cases

b. Increasing severity with increasing age

c. Explosive

d. Cases include both people who have been exposed & those who were not exposed

e. All of the above

At an initial examination in Oxford, Mass migraine headaches was found in 5 of 1,000 men aged 30 to 35 years & in 10 of 1,000 women aged 30 to 35 years. The inference that women have a two times greater risk of developing headaches than do men in this group is:

A prevalence survey conducted from January 1 through December 31, 2012 identified 1,000 cases of schizophrenia in a city of 2,000,000 persons. The incidence rate of schizophrenia in this population is 5/100,000 persons each year. What percent of the 1,000 cases were diagnosed in 2012?

Which of the following is an advantage of active surveillance?

What would be the effect on age specific incidence rate of uterine cancer if women with hysterectomies were excluded from the denominator of the calculations, assuming that there are some women in each age group who have had hysterectomies?

A survey was conducted among the non-hospitalized adult populations of the united states during 2008 through 20122. The results from this survey are shown below.

Age group Persons with HTN %

18-29 4

30-39 10

40-49 22

50-59 43

60-69 54

70 & older 64

The researchers stated that there was an age related increase in the risk of hypertension in this population. You conclude that the researchers interpretation:

Next two questions relate to the information below:

Population of the city of Atlantis on March 30, 2012 = 183,000

No of new active cases of TB occurring between January 1 & June 30, 2012 = 26

No of active TB cases according to the city register on June 30, 2012 =264

The incidence rate of active cases for the 6 month period was:

The prevalence rate of active TB for the month of June was:

The following two questions are based on information provided below:

In an Asian country with a popularion of 6 million people, 60,000 deaths occurred during the year ending December 31, 2010. These included 30,000 deaths from cholera in 100,000 people who were sick with cholera.

What was the cause specific mortality rate from cholera in 2010?

What was the case fatality from cholera in 2010?

Case fatality:

Age adjusted death rates are used to:

The mortslity rate from disease X in city A is 75/100,000 in persons 65 to 69 years old. The mortality rate from the same disease in city b is 150/100,000 in persons 65 to 69 years old. The inference that disease X is two times more prevalent in persons 65 to 69 years old in city B than it is in persons 65 to 69 years old in city a is:

The incidence rate of a disease is five imes greater in women thn in men, but the prevalences rates show no sex difference. The best explantiaon is that:

For a disease such as pancreatic cancer, which is highly fatal & of short duration:

Annual Cancer Deaths in white Male workers in two industries

Industry A Industry B

Cancer site # of deaths % of all cancer deaths # of deaths % of all cancer deaths

Respiratory system 180 33 248 45

Digestive system 160 29 160 29

Genitourinary 80 15 82 15

All other sites 130 23 60 11

Totals 550 100 550 100

Based on the preceding information, it was concluded that workers in industry B are at higher risk of death from respiratoy system cancer than workers in industry A. (Assume that the age distributions of the workers in the two industries are nearly identical.)

Which of the following statements is true?

A program manager from an international health funding agency needs to identify regions that would benefit from an intervention aimed at reducing premature disability. The program manager asks a health care consultant to develop a proposal using an index that would help her make this decision. Which of the following would best serve this purpose?

The following are st&ardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for lung cancer in Engl&:

St&ardized mortality ratios

Occupation 1949-1960 1968-1979

Carpenters 209 135

Bricklayers 142 118

Based on the SMRs alone, it is possible to conclude that:

The rate of death from lung cancer in carpenters in 1968-1979 was greater than would have been expected for a group of men of similar ages in all occupations.

A screening tests is used in the same way in two similar populations, but the proportion of false positive results among those who test positive in population A is lower than that among those who test positive in population B. What is the likely explanation for this finding?

A physical examination & an audiometric test were given to 500 persons with suspected hearing problems, of whom 300 were actually found to have them. The results of the examination were as follows

Physical examination

Hearing Problems

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