Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Which of the business entities under consideration best accomplishes her business goals? Thoroughly explain the reasons for your recommendations. 2. Which of the intereste - Writeedu

Which of the business entities under consideration best accomplishes her business goals? Thoroughly explain the reasons for your recommendations. 2. Which of the intereste

 1. Which of the business entities under consideration best accomplishes her business goals? Thoroughly explain the reasons for your recommendations.

2. Which of the interested persons she should include in her business, in what role(s), and why? Your analysis must include Biblical perspectives, such as Biblical considerations of marriage, and business relationships with non-believers. Thoroughly explain the reasons for your recommendations.

BUSI 561

Paper: Business Formation

Assignment Instructions

Shania Jackson is a mature Christian thinking of opening a Christian coffeehouse near Detroit, Michigan. Her husband, Marvin, is open to making a contribution of capital to the business, but he has no interest in participating in its day-to-day operations or management.

Shania’s sister, Kelsey, is a new Christian who has told Shania that she’s been looking for an excuse to get out of the house and would love to be a part of the business. Kelsey’s husband, a non-Christian, opposes his wife’s involvement and has told her that he wants her to remain a stay-at-home mom to their 2 children.

Shania’s neighbor, Carlos, is a non-Christian who has also expressed an interest in participating in the business as a way to earn extra income. Carlos thinks the “Christian thing” has potential with all the big churches in the area, including a Mormon temple and a large Kingdom Hall of Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Shania has considered organizing her business as a sole proprietorship, a partnership of some sort, a small corporation, or an LLC.

Advise Shania on the following decisions:

1. Which of the business entities under consideration best accomplishes her business goals? Thoroughly explain the reasons for your recommendations.

2. Which of the interested persons she should include in her business, in what role(s), and why? Your analysis must include Biblical perspectives, such as Biblical considerations of marriage, and business relationships with non-believers. Thoroughly explain the reasons for your recommendations.

Support your analysis with at least 3 scholarly sources other than the course materials, cited in-text and in a reference list. You must also integrate Biblical worldview analysis.

This paper must contain at least 800 words and follow current APA format but does not require an abstract. The title page, abstract (if you include one), and reference list do not count towards the length requirement. Submit your paper as a Word document.

Grading rubric:

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 1

Created by Christy Owen of Liberty University’s Online Writing Center

[email protected]; last date modified: November 7, 2021

Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students

Claudia S. Sample

School of Behavioral Sciences, Liberty University

Author Note

Claudia S. Sample (usually only included if author has an ORCID number)

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Claudia S. Sample.

Email: [email protected]

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 2

Table of Contents

(Only Included for Easy Navigation; Hyperlinked for Quick Access)

Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students ……………………………… 6

Basic Rules of Scholarly Writing ……………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Brief Summary of Changes in APA-7 ………………………………………………………………………………… 8

Running Head, Author Note, and Abstract …………………………………………………………………………. 9

Basic Formatting Elements …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10

Font ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10

Line Spacing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

Spaces After Punctuation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Footnotes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

Heading Levels—Level 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11

Level 2 Heading …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

Level 3 Heading ………………………………………………………………………………………. 13

Level 4 Heading. Must be bolded and indented ½”. Add a period, one

space, and begin your content on the same line as shown here. ………………………………… 13

Level 5 Heading …………………………………………………………………. 13

Specific Elements of Academic Papers ……………………………………………………………………………. 13

Tables of Contents and Outlines …………………………………………………………………………… 13

Annotated Bibliographies ……………………………………………………………………………………. 14

Appendices ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 3

Crediting Your Sources………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

Paraphrasing and Direct Quotes ……………………………………………………………………………. 15

Paraphrasing ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 16

Block Quotes …………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

How Often to Cite Your Source in Each Paragraph ………………………………………………… 17

Rule for Omitting the Year of Publication ……………………………………………………………… 17

Arranging the Order of Resources in Your Citations ………………………………………………. 17

Two Works by the Same Author in the Same Year …………………………………………………. 18

Two Works by Two Different Authors with the Same Last Name ……………………………. 18

Three or More Authors Cited In-Text ……………………………………………………………………. 18

Number of Authors in the Reference List ………………………………………………………………. 19

Numbers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Displaying Titles of Works in-Text …………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Primary Sources versus Secondary Sources ……………………………………………………………………… 20

Personal Communications ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

Resources Canonically Numbered Sections (i.e., the Bible and Plays) …………………………………. 21

Bible and other Classical Works …………………………………………………………………………… 21

Plays …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22

Lectures and PowerPoints ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22

Dictionary Entries …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23

Changes in Reference Entries …………………………………………………………………………………………. 23

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 4

Electronic Sources ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Adding Color ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

Self-Plagiarism ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Final Formatting Tweaks ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

Exhaustive Reference List Examples & Additional Helpful Resources ………………………………… 26

Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29

References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30

Appendix ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 5

Abstract

Begin your abstract at the left margin. This is the only paragraph that should not be indented.

Unless otherwise instructed, APA recommends an abstract be no more than 250 words. It should

generally not contain any citations or direct quotes. This should be a tight, concise summary of

the main points in your paper, not a step-by-step of what you plan to accomplish in your paper.

Avoid phrases such as “this paper will,” and just structure your sentences to say what you want

to say. The following three sentences exemplify a good abstract style: There are many

similarities and differences between the codes of ethics for the ACA and the AACC. Both include

similar mandates in the areas of —-, —, and —. However, each differs significantly in the areas

of —, —, and —. For more detailed information, see “Writing an Abstract” at

https://www.liberty.edu/casas/academic-success-center/wp-content/uploads/sites/28/2019/04/

Writing_an_Abstract_Revised_2012.pdf (note that you would not include any links in your

abstract). This is just now at 168 words, so eyeball how brief your abstract must be. Think of

your paper as a movie you want to sound enticing, and the abstract as the summary of the plot

you would share to draw people’s interest into wanting to come and see your movie. You want to

really hook and intrigue them. What you have to say is important! Remember to stay under 250,

words. Keywords highlight the search terms someone would use to find your paper in a database.

Keywords: main words, primary, necessary, search terms

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 6

Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students

The title of your paper goes on the top line of the first page of the body (American

Psychological Association [APA], 2019, section 2.11). It should be centered, bolded, and in title

case (all major words—usually those with four+ letters—should begin with a capital letter)—see

p. 51 of your Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: Seventh Edition

(APA, 2019; hereinafter APA-7). It must match the title that is on your title page (see last line on

p. 32). As shown in the previous sentence, use brackets to denote an abbreviation within

parentheses (bottom of p. 159). Write out the full name of an entity or term the first time

mentioned before using its acronym (see citation in first sentence in this paragraph), and then use

the acronym throughout the body of the paper (section 6.25).

There are many changes in APA-7. One to mention here is that APA-7 allows writers to

include subheadings within the introductory section (APA, 2019, p. 47). Since APA-7 now

regards the title, abstract, and term “References” to all be Level-1 headings, a writer who opts to

include headings in his or her introduction must begin with Level-2 headings as shown above

(see section 2.27) for any divisions within the introductory section.

If you do choose to include headings in your introduction section (which is optional), be

sure to include two or more subheadings, since APA (2019) forbids stand-alone heading levels.

A second notable change in APA-7 is that writers are no longer required to cite their source every

single sentence that content from it is mentioned (section 8.1). As demonstrated in this paper,

since all of the content (other than the examples included for illustration and reference-entry

variation purposes) comes directly from the APA-7 itself, citations to the APA-7 are only

included for the first instance in each paragraph. Section and/or page numbers are included

parenthetically throughout for the sake of students who desire to know exactly where the stated

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 7

rule appears in the APA-7 itself. In your academic papers, however, it is critical to include the

required author(s) and year, as applicable, for all citations that are included; this may include

more than one citation for each resource per paragraph, as required to avoid any confusion about

the source of that content.

Basic Rules of Scholarly Writing

Most beginning students have difficulty learning how to write papers and also format

papers correctly using the seventh edition of the APA manual. However, the Liberty University

Online Writing Center’s (OWC) mission includes helping students learn how to be autonomous,

proficient writers. The OWC also provides students with templates to help them with basic

formatting elements, but this sample paper is designed to help graduate and doctoral students

learn to master APA rules and formatting on their own, which will prove helpful as they progress

in their studies and work toward future publication in scholarly journals.

For the purpose of instruction, this paper will use second person (you, your), but third

person (this author) must be used in most student papers. First person (I, me, we, us, our) is not

generally permitted in academic papers. Students should refrain from using first or second person

in college courses (even though the APA manual encourages this in other writing venues) unless

the assignment instructions clearly permit such (as in the case of personal reflection sections or

life histories). If in doubt, students should clarify with their professors.

APA-7 delineates separate rules and guidelines between “student” and “professional”

writers (APA, 2019). Because a primary purpose of graduate and doctoral studies is to prepare

those students to publish professionally, Liberty University has decided to have undergraduate

students follow APA-7’s guidelines for “student papers,” and graduate/doctoral students follow

APA-7’s guidelines for “professional papers.” Separate templates are available for each level.

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 8

This sample paper illustrates and discusses the rules and formatting of professional papers, as

required for all Liberty University graduate and doctoral courses using APA-7 style.

Brief Summary of Changes in APA-7

Most of these changes will be discussed in more detail below; this is just a very brief

overview here. APA-7 reverts back to only one space after closing punctuation in the body of the

paper (APA-6 required two spaces; APA, 2019, section 6.1). Student (undergraduate) papers no

longer include a running head or abstract (sections 2.2 and 2.8); professional (graduate/doctoral)

papers require an abstract but the running head is now the same on all pages (the added phrase

“Running head:” from APA-6 has been eliminated; see section 2.8). Title pages are different for

both student and professional formats. The title of a paper is no longer limited to 12 words

(section 2.4).

Citations of all resources with three or more authors now use the first author’s last name

and the term et al. (APA, 2019, section 8.17). Reference entries must name up to the first 19

authors before adding an ampersand and ellipsis (up from APA-6’s six authors; section 9.8).

APA-7 omits the phrase DOI and instead standardizes DOIs to be presented in hyperlink format

(i.e., https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1524838017742386; section 9.35). Formatting guidelines for

annotated bibliographies are included in APA-7 (section 9.51), as well as expanded and

standardized reference entry examples. As discussed above, it is no longer necessary to cite a

source every single time you refer to content gleaned from it as long as it is clear the content

comes from that source (section 8.1); APA-7 also expanded the specific location noted in the

citation to include page, paragraph, section (as used throughout this sample paper, to direct the

student to the exact relevant content), chapter, timestamp, etc. (section 8.13).

APA-7 allows for “self-plagiarism” (clarified and defined below). It also invites writers to

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 9

highlight the most relevant work first, rather than just present all works in alphabetical order

(APA, 2019, section 8.12).

Heading-level formatting has changed, and APA-7 provides more flexibility in font and

line spacing (APA, 2019). The Bible must now be included in the reference list and its citations

must include the editor’s details and year (section 8.28); there are also new rules for dictionary

entries. Publisher city and state details are omitted from all reference entries except those

involving presentations or conferences, as is the phrase “retrieved from.” Hyperlinks should be

live, but they may be either presented as blue underlining or plain black text.

Running Head, Author Note, and Abstract

APA (2019) delineates separate formatting requirements for what it terms “student” and

“professional” papers. Its descriptions for those labels, however, suggests that it regards

undergraduate-level writing to fall within the student purview, and graduate/doctoral-level

writing (including dissertations and theses) to fall within the professional purview. Since a

significant goal in graduate and post-graduate studies is preparing those students to publish in

scholarly journals at and beyond graduation, it makes sense to train those students in the

formatting that is required for professionals. As such, Liberty University has opted to require the

APA-7’s “student” version format for all undergraduate assignments using APA, and its

“professional” version for all graduate and doctoral assignments. To that end, this being the

sample paper for professional formatting, it includes the additional elements required for such: a

running head (same on all pages), an author’s note, and an abstract. Graduate and doctoral

students will use this format. Note that the first “paragraph” under the author’s note is generally

only included if the author has an ORCID number, which most students will not have. However,

it is included in this sample paper and the corresponding template because the purpose of these

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 10

resources is to prepare students to publish manuscripts post-graduation. The student’s full

address, however, is intentionally omitted from the Liberty University template and this sample

paper for privacy and safety reasons, since student papers are often unfortunately published

online and disclosing their home addresses could pose safety risks.

Basic Formatting Elements

Font

APA-7 does not prescribe a specific font or size (APA, 2019, section 2.19) but rather

allows for some choice (e.g., 12-point Times New Romans, 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, 11-

point Georgia, or 10-point Lucinda Sans Unicode). Most journals and academic institutions will

have a preference, however, as even APA-7 acknowledges on p. 44. For this reason—and

because font size can easily be changed if an editor interested in publishing a student’s work

prefers a different font—Liberty University recommends that students use 12-point Times New

Romans or 11-point Calibri font for the body text in all academic papers. Data in charts, figures,

and tables should be presented in 8- to 14-point size in either Calibri, Arial, or Lucinda Sans

Unicode font. Students are not permitted to use any fonts such as script, calligraphy, poster,

decorative, or others not found in published scholarly journals. Since APA-7 itself authorizes a

variety of fonts and sizes, assignments will be gauged by word count rather than page count.

Word count constitutes the number of words within the body of the paper, and excludes the title

page, abstract, reference list, appendices, and other supplemental resources.

Line Spacing

APA-7 adds extra/blank lines on the title page (APA, 2019, sections 2.5, 2.7, 2.21). It also

specifies that spacing in tables and figures may be single-, 1-1/2-, or double-spaced; equations

can be triple- or quadruple-spaced. Footnotes, when used at the bottom of a page, should be

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 11

single-spaced (section 2.21).

Spaces After Punctuation

APA-7 reverts back to just one space after closing punctuation in the body of the paper, as

well as in reference entries (APA, 2019, section 6.1). Ordinarily, it would be improper to have a

paragraph with only one sentence, though APA itself asserts that for its purposes “sentences and

paragraphs of any length are technically allowed.”1

Footnotes

This leads to another new rule in APA-7, one allowing the inclusion of footnotes (APA,

2019, section 2.13). Footnotes should be use very sparingly and are appropriate to include

information such as that in the prior section to alert the reader to supplemental material that is

available online for that thought. Though APA-7 authorizes placement of footnote content either

at the bottom of the page (as in this sample paper) or on a separate page after the reference list

(section 2.21), Liberty University recommends that student place them, when used, at the bottom

of the page, as shown here.

Heading Levels—Level 1

This sample paper uses primarily two levels of headings (Levels 1 and 2). APA style,

however, has five heading levels, which will be demonstrated briefly for visual purposes. See

section 2.27 of your APA-7 (APA, 2019) for more details on heading levels and formatting. In

APA-7, all heading levels are now bolded and in title case (capitalize each major word—usually

those with four or more letters, including hyphenated compound words). Do not capitalize

articles (a, an, the) in headings unless they begin a title or follow a colon. Level 1 headings are

centered, with the content falling on the line beneath each, in standard paragraph format.

1 See https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2016/05/index.html

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 12

Many students misunderstand that you progress from Level 1 to Level 2 to Level 3 to

Level 4 to Level 5, but that is not correct. In fact, your paper may have only Level 1 headings, or

just Levels 1 and 2. The rule of thumb is that you must have at least two of each heading level

that you use, otherwise omit that heading level.

Headings are basically styling ways of organizing your paper, without using an outline

format. APA specifies five levels of headings; you would likely never use Level 5 and only very

rarely use Level 4 as a student. Think of each level as the different levels in an outline. Roman

numerals, for example, would be Level 1 headings. Capital letters would be Level 2 headings.

Numerals would be Level 3 headings. Lowercase letters would be Level 4. And lowercase

Roman numerals would be Level 5. You must always have two or more of each subheading, but

you do not need every level. You start with Level 1 and work down from that (but not

consecutive 1-2-3-4-5). Under a Level 1, you would either have two+ Level 2 headings or none

at all (just one big section in paragraphs before the next Level 1 section).

Special note about conclusion sections: Please note that some of the sample papers

published by APA to demonstrate proper APA-7 format (including the “professional” sample on

pp. 50-60 of the APA-7 manual) depict the “Conclusion” section with a Level-2 heading. This is

limited to empirical papers that are being submitted for publication in scholarly journals, as those

conclusions pertain to the “Discussion” sections in such papers and are not conclusions of the

overall papers themselves. Conclusions in academic papers at Liberty University will be Level 1

headings (including dissertations and theses, which are divided by chapters, unlike journal article

manuscripts).

Level 2 Heading

Level 2 headings are left-justified (APA, 2019, p. 48). The supporting information is

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 13

posed in standard paragraph form beneath it. Never use only one of any level of heading. You

must use two or more of any level you use, though not every paper will require more than one

level. The heading levels are simply demonstrated here for visual purposes, but you would

always have two or more of each under a larger heading, as shown throughout all the other

sections of this sample paper.

Level 3 Heading

Level 3 headings are bolded, left-justified, and italicized; the content falls on the line

underneath, as with Levels 1 and 2.

Level 4 Heading. Must be bolded and indented ½”. Add a period, one space, and begin

your content on the same line as shown here.

Level 5 Heading. Same as Level 4, but also italicized. Despite heavy writing experience,

this author has never used Level 5 headings.

Specific Elements of Academic Papers

Tables of Contents and Outlines

APA (2019) does not regulate every type of paper and some elements in various

assignments are not addressed in the APA-7 manual, including outlines and tables of content. In

those cases, follow your professor’s instructions and the grading rubric for the content and

format of the outline or annotations, and use standard APA formatting for all other elements

(such as running head, title page, body, reference list, 1" margins, double-spacing, permitted

font, etc.). Note that most academic papers will not require a table of contents, nor would one be

appropriate. One was included in this paper simply for ease-of-access so students could go

directly to the content they want to see. Generally speaking, no table of contents would be

necessary for papers less than 20 pages of content, unless otherwise required by your professor.

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 14

That being said, when organizing outlines in APA format, set your headings up in the

proper levels (making sure there are at least two subheadings under each level), and then use

those to make the entries in the outline. As discussed above, Level 1 headings become uppercase

Roman numerals (I, II, III), Level 2 headings become capital letters (A, B, C), Level 3 headings

become numbers (1, 2, 3), Level 4 headings become lowercase letters (a, b, c), and Level 5

headings become lowercase Roman numerals (i, ii, iii). Many courses now require “working

out

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